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The Horse, the Wheel, and Language by David W. Anthony

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CHAPTER TWELVE

Seeds of Change on the Steppe BordersMaikop Chiefs and Tripolye Towns

After Old Europe collapsed, the dedication of copper objects in North Pontic graves declined by almost 80%.1 Beginning in about 3800 BCE and until about 3300 BCE the varied tribes and regional cultures of the Pontic-Caspian steppes seem to have turned their attention away from the Danube valley and toward their other borders, where significant social and economic changes were now occurring.

On the southeast, in the North Caucasus Mountains, spectacularly ostentatious chiefs suddenly appeared among what had been very ordinary small-scale farmers. They displayed ...

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