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The Horse, the Wheel, and Language by David W. Anthony

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CHAPTER FOURTEEN

The Western Indo–European Languages

“A wild river full of possibilities flowed from my new tongue.”—Andrew Lam, Learning a Language, Inventing a Future 2006

We will not understand the early expansion of the Proto–Indo–European dialects by trying to equate language simply with artifact types. Material culture often has little relationship to language. I have proposed an exception to that rule in the case of robust and persistent frontiers, but that does seem to be an exception. The essence of language expansion is psychological. The initial expansion of the Indo–European languages was the result of widespread cultural shifts in group self–perception. Language replacement always is accompanied by revised self–perceptions, a restructuring ...

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