Deming describes profound knowledge in four parts, all related to each other:
1. Appreciation for a system
2. Understanding variation
3. Building knowledge
4. Human side of change
A leader of improvement does not need to be an expert in all of these areas. The leader should understand the basic theories, how the areas interrelate, and why they are important for any improvement effort. Profound knowledge gives us a lens to view our organizations differently. The lens is illustrated in Figure 4.2; a brief description of each part follows.
FIGURE 4.2. DEMING’S SYSTEM OF PROFOUND KNOWLEDGE.