Chapter 9. 1950–1954: Strides toward Broad Integration; Breakup of the Plantation

During the 1940s the Office of Operations probably consistently followed the military model, i.e., all black functional units were normally formed within larger white organizations. Herman Phynes, for example, was head of the commercial code section, which is believed to have remained a segregated unit until it folded (probably around 1950). Bill Coffee, after leaving that section, supervised a group of typists that transcribed automatic Morse tapes. It is doubtful that this was a mixed group. An indication of the personal feelings and controversy that might have surrounded these black units is provided by a story told by Jack Gurin, chief of the Russian plaintext ...

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