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The Java® Language Specification, Java SE 7 Edition, Fourth Edition by Alex Buckley, Gilad Bracha, Guy Steele, Bill Joy, James Gosling

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Chapter 6. Names

Names are used to refer to entities declared in a program.

A declared entity (§6.1) is a package, class type (normal or enum), interface type (normal or annotation type), member (class, interface, field, or method) of a reference type, type parameter (of a class, interface, method or constructor), parameter (to a method, constructor, or exception handler), or local variable.

Names in programs are either simple, consisting of a single identifier, or qualified, consisting of a sequence of identifiers separated by “.” tokens (§6.2).

Every declaration that introduces a name has a scope6.3), which is the part of the program text within which the declared entity can be referred to by a simple name.

A qualified name N.x may be used ...

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