This chapter specifies activities that occur during execution of a program. It is organized around the life cycle of the Java Virtual Machine and of the classes, interfaces, and objects that form a program.
The Java Virtual Machine starts up by loading a specified class and then invoking the method
main in this specified class. Section §12.1 outlines the loading, linking, and initialization steps involved in executing
main, as an introduction to the concepts in this chapter. Further sections specify the details of loading (§12.2), linking (§12.3), and initialization (§12.4).