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The Java® Language Specification, Java SE 7 Edition, Fourth Edition by Alex Buckley, Gilad Bracha, Guy Steele, Bill Joy, James Gosling

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15.5. Expressions and Run-Time Checks

If the type of an expression is a primitive type, then the value of the expression is of that same primitive type.

If the type of an expression is a reference type, then the class of the referenced object, or even whether the value is a reference to an object rather than null, is not necessarily known at compile time. There are a few places in the Java programming language where the actual class of a referenced object affects program execution in a manner that cannot be deduced from the type of the expression. They are as follows:

• Method invocation (§15.12). The particular method used for an invocation o.m(...) is chosen based on the methods that are part of the class or interface that is the type of

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