It was more than a decade ago that I first saw a diagram of the ecosystem of alliances for a global corporation. I was in the Finnish headquarters of the telecom company Nokia, and at that time, the word ecosystem was just beginning to be used to describe the multiple alliances a company had with its suppliers, partners, and competitors. The diagram illustrated the extent of these relationships as a network with fine lines connecting the partners both with Nokia and with each other. It was an extraordinary sight. There were alliances with code developers such as ARM Holdings, with the chip manufacturers such as ...

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