The frame narrative


c.8th–13th century One Thousand and One Nights, a collection of tales by different authors from across the Islamic world, is framed within the story of Scheherazade.

1348–53 The Decameron, by Italian Giovanni Boccaccio, contains 100 stories set within a tale of people fleeing the Black Death.


1558 The Heptameron, by French author Marguerite de Navarre, contains 72 short stories, framed within a story of 10 stranded travelers.

2004 English writer David Mitchell’s Cloud Atlas follows the frame-narrative tradition, including stories within stories that travel over centuries.

The use of an outer narrative that ...

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