Psychological realism


c.1000–12 Murasaki Shikibu’s The Tale of Genji offers psychological insights into the lives of its characters.

1740 English writer Samuel Richardson’s sentimental novel Pamela explores the inner nature of the novel’s heroine.

1830 The Red and the Black, by French author Stendhal, is published and is seen by many as the first psychological realist novel.


1871–72 George Eliot’s Middlemarch traces the psychological landscape of a provincial English town.

1881 The Portrait of a Lady, by American author Henry James, delves into the consciousness of the character Isabel Archer.

Psychological realism is the depiction ...

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