1859 On the Origin of Species, by English naturalist Charles Darwin, has a profound impact on numerous literary works, encouraging a belief in physiological determinism.
1874 Thomas Hardy’s Far From the Madding Crowd, with its fatalistic portrayal of the inequitable condition of humankind, foreshadows French naturalism.
1891 English novelist George Gissing’s New Grub Street looks at the damaging effect of poverty on creativity.
1895 Set during the American Civil War, Stephen Crane’s The Red Badge of Courage presents with psychological naturalism an inexperienced soldier’s reactions to the bloodshed.
Naturalism was ...