A

age of universe, 232–233

aliens. See extraterrestrial life

Alpha Centauri (binary star system),

185, 205

ancient beliefs about universe, 18–19

Andromeda galaxy

collision with Milky Way

galaxy, 109

discovery as galaxy, 144–145

distance from Earth, 144

early observation of, 120

annihilation, 170

annual parallax, 126, 186–188

antimatter, 169–171

antiquarks, 169–171

aperture of telescopes, 121

Apollo space missions, 13, 67

Arecibo Message, 182

Aristarchus, 40–41, 45–47, 125

Aristotle, 39

atoms, 168

average density of matter, 227–228

B

Babylonian beliefs about universe, 19

Bamboo-Cutter, The Tale of the,

10–11

bar galaxy, 106

barred spiral galaxies, 106

baryonic matter, 166, 226

beliefs about universe, ancient, 18–19

Bell Laboratories, 166

Big Bang, 155–167

and antimatter, 169–171

appearance of elementary par-

ticles, 167–168

birth and distribution of matter

after, 172–175

chronology after, 163

evidence supporting, 166

inﬂation after, 231

overview, 155–159

Planck epoch, 164–165

temperature after, 172

when occurred, 161, 232

Big Crunch, 226

black holes, 108–109

board game, Kaguya-go Journey,

206–207

bosons, 168

C

Cannon, Annie Jump, 188

capture hypothesis, 93

celestial sphere, 19

Cepheid variable stars, 188–189

CfA2 Great Wall, 141

China, development of astronomy

in, 19

closed universe, 222–223, 228,

230, 232

clusters of galaxies, 111

formation of, 173, 175

Local Group, 140–141, 207

mass of, 226

number of galaxies in, 140

superclusters, 111, 141, 207

CMBR (cosmic microwave background

radiation), 166, 229, 231

COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer)

satellite, 166

Copernicus, Nicolaus, 39, 53, 69, 71

corner cube

mirrors, 67

prism, 67–68

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

satellite, 166

cosmic background radiation, 227

cosmic inﬂation theory, 164–165

cosmic microwave background radia-

tion (CMBR), 166, 229, 231

cosmological constant, 225–227, 232

cosmological principle, 180, 219, 229

critical density, 227–228

Curtis, Heber Doust, 144

curvature of space

degree of, 229–232

effect of returning to same place,

220–221

and fate of universe, 227–229

general explanation, 219–220

negative curvature, 221–222

positive curvature, 219–221

cylindrical-shaped space, 220–221

D

dark energy, 109, 166, 227–228

dark matter, 109, 166, 226

de Sitter universe, 232

Democritus, 116, 120

density constant, 228

density of matter, average, 227–228

disc-shaped galactic model, 117–119

distances. See measuring distances

Doppler effect, 147

Drake, Frank, 180–181, 184

Drake equation, 180–181

dynamic universe, 222–227

E

Earth

appearance of rotation of Sun and

Moon around, 34–39

in diagram of solar system, 64

diameter of, 60

distance from Moon

baseball ﬁeld comparison,

61–62

as basis for ﬁguring distance to

Sun, 125

determining using corner cube

mirrors, 67–69

ﬁguring by triangulation,

41–45

distance from Sun, 41–45, 64

facts about, 91

formation of, 163

and formation of Moon, 92–93

orbit of, 77

radius of, 66

size of

calculation of, 20–21

compared to Sun/Moon,

45–49

as spherical, discovery of, 20–22

tides on, 94

eccentricity, 74–75

Index

236 Index

eclipses, lunar, 46

“edge” of universe, 177–178,

199–200, 209–210

Egyptian beliefs about universe,

ancient, 18

Einstein, Albert, 224–227

elementary particles, 167–168

elliptical orbits, 71–72

and Kepler’s First Law, 73–75

and Kepler’s Second Law, 75–76

energy, dark, 109, 166, 227–228

Epsilon Eridani (planetary

system), 184

Eratosthenes, 20–21, 68

Europa (satellite of Jupiter), 86,

182–183

expansion of universe

acceleration of, 227

cone illustration of, 156–158

ongoing, 226–227

redshift as proof of, 146–152

velocity of, 162

extraterrestrial life, 180–186

closest star system that could

support, 183–184

contacting, 184–185

and Cosmological Principle, 180

Fermi paradox regarding, 182

number of possible civilizations,

180–181

and variety of life on Earth,

182–183

F

Fermi, Enrico, 181–182

Fermi paradox, 182

fermions, 168

ﬂat universe, 220, 223, 228–232

FLRW (Friedmann-Lemaitre-

Robertson-Walker) model

of universe, 227–229

four-dimensional space, 209–210

Friedmann, Alexander, 222, 225

Friedmann models of universe,

222–223

Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-

Walker (FLRW) model of

universe, 227–229

G

galaxies. See also Andromeda galaxy;

clusters of galaxies; Milky Way

galaxy

deﬁned, 140

formation of, 137, 163, 173, 175

groups of, 111, 140–141, 173,

175, 207

shape of, 137

soccer game example, 133–139

Galaxy IOK-1, 123

Galilean telescope, 121

Galileo Galilei

blunders of, 72

discoveries of, 56–57, 72–73,

116, 120

name of, 72

overview, 54

game, Kaguya-go Journey, 206–207

gamma rays, 96, 232–233

Ganymede (satellite of Jupiter),

93, 183

gauge particles, 168

Geller, Margaret, 141

general theory of relativity, 224–227

geocentric model, 38–39

disproved by Galileo’s

discoveries, 57

vs. heliocentric model, 55

planetary orbits according to, 70

and positions of Moon and Sun,

42–46

Ptolemy’s contributions to, 51–54

reasons for past popularity of, 69

and size of Sun, 46–49

and Tychonic system, 70–71

giant impact hypothesis, 93

gravitational forces

according to general theory of

relativity, 224–225

bending of light by, 226

and dark energy, 227

and dark matter, 226

in early universe, 173

law of universal gravitation, 173

Newtonian representation of, 224

repulsive force, 224–225, 227

and spaceship travel, 185

gravitational lenses, 226

Great Andromeda Nebula, 120,

144–145. See also

Andromeda galaxy

Great Dark Spot, Neptune's, 89

Great Debate, 144

Great Red Spot, on Jupiter, 86

Great Wall, 141, 163, 207

Grecian explanation of universe,

ancient, 20

groups of galaxies, 111

difference from clusters, 140

distribution of, 173

and superclusters, 207

H

habitable zone, 184

Hale Telescope, Mount Palomar

Observatory, 122

harvest moon festival, 11–12

heliocentric model, 39–40

and Copernicus, 53

diagram of, 54

and Galileo, 57, 72–73

vs. geocentric model, 55

initial missing elements of, 71

signiﬁcance of, 73

support of by invention of

telescope, 57

support of by Kepler’s Laws,

58, 72

helium, 97, 151–152, 172

Herschel, Frederick William, 118–119

Hertzsprung, Ejnar, 187–188

Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram,

187–188

Hipparchus, 68

Hipparcos High Precision Parallax

Collecting Satellite, 126

Hooke, Robert, 86

Hooker Telescope, Mount Wilson

Observatory, 122

horizon

curvature of, 21–22

distance to, 66

and measurement of cosmic back-

ground radiation, 231

H-R (Hertzsprung-Russell) diagram,

187–188

Hubble, Edwin

brief history of, 142–143

discovery of expansion of

universe, 146–149

Hubble’s constant, 162

Hubble’s law, 122

Hubble Space Telescope,

122–123, 142

Huchra, John, 141

hydrogen, 97, 151–152, 172

hydrostatic equilibrium, 96–97

hydrothermal vent, 182

hypernova, 232–233

hyperspace, 209–210, 219

Start Free Trial

No credit card required