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The Manga Guide to the Universe by Verte Corp., Kiyoshi Kawabata, Kenji Ishikawa

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A
age of universe, 232–233
aliens. See extraterrestrial life
Alpha Centauri (binary star system),
185, 205
ancient beliefs about universe, 18–19
Andromeda galaxy
collision with Milky Way
galaxy, 109
discovery as galaxy, 144–145
distance from Earth, 144
early observation of, 120
annihilation, 170
annual parallax, 126, 186–188
antimatter, 169–171
antiquarks, 169–171
aperture of telescopes, 121
Apollo space missions, 13, 67
Arecibo Message, 182
Aristarchus, 40–41, 45–47, 125
Aristotle, 39
atoms, 168
average density of matter, 227–228
B
Babylonian beliefs about universe, 19
Bamboo-Cutter, The Tale of the,
10–11
bar galaxy, 106
barred spiral galaxies, 106
baryonic matter, 166, 226
beliefs about universe, ancient, 18–19
Bell Laboratories, 166
Big Bang, 155–167
and antimatter, 169–171
appearance of elementary par-
ticles, 167–168
birth and distribution of matter
after, 172–175
chronology after, 163
evidence supporting, 166
inflation after, 231
overview, 155–159
Planck epoch, 164–165
temperature after, 172
when occurred, 161, 232
Big Crunch, 226
black holes, 108–109
board game, Kaguya-go Journey,
206–207
bosons, 168
C
Cannon, Annie Jump, 188
capture hypothesis, 93
celestial sphere, 19
Cepheid variable stars, 188–189
CfA2 Great Wall, 141
China, development of astronomy
in, 19
closed universe, 222–223, 228,
230, 232
clusters of galaxies, 111
formation of, 173, 175
Local Group, 140–141, 207
mass of, 226
number of galaxies in, 140
superclusters, 111, 141, 207
CMBR (cosmic microwave background
radiation), 166, 229, 231
COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer)
satellite, 166
Copernicus, Nicolaus, 39, 53, 69, 71
corner cube
mirrors, 67
prism, 67–68
Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)
satellite, 166
cosmic background radiation, 227
cosmic inflation theory, 164–165
cosmic microwave background radia-
tion (CMBR), 166, 229, 231
cosmological constant, 225–227, 232
cosmological principle, 180, 219, 229
critical density, 227–228
Curtis, Heber Doust, 144
curvature of space
degree of, 229–232
effect of returning to same place,
220–221
and fate of universe, 227–229
general explanation, 219–220
negative curvature, 221–222
positive curvature, 219–221
cylindrical-shaped space, 220–221
D
dark energy, 109, 166, 227–228
dark matter, 109, 166, 226
de Sitter universe, 232
Democritus, 116, 120
density constant, 228
density of matter, average, 227–228
disc-shaped galactic model, 117–119
distances. See measuring distances
Doppler effect, 147
Drake, Frank, 180–181, 184
Drake equation, 180–181
dynamic universe, 222–227
E
Earth
appearance of rotation of Sun and
Moon around, 34–39
in diagram of solar system, 64
diameter of, 60
distance from Moon
baseball field comparison,
61–62
as basis for figuring distance to
Sun, 125
determining using corner cube
mirrors, 67–69
figuring by triangulation,
41–45
distance from Sun, 41–45, 64
facts about, 91
formation of, 163
and formation of Moon, 92–93
orbit of, 77
radius of, 66
size of
calculation of, 20–21
compared to Sun/Moon,
45–49
as spherical, discovery of, 20–22
tides on, 94
eccentricity, 74–75
Index
236 Index
eclipses, lunar, 46
edge” of universe, 177–178,
199–200, 209–210
Egyptian beliefs about universe,
ancient, 18
Einstein, Albert, 224–227
elementary particles, 167–168
elliptical orbits, 71–72
and Kepler’s First Law, 73–75
and Kepler’s Second Law, 75–76
energy, dark, 109, 166, 227–228
Epsilon Eridani (planetary
system), 184
Eratosthenes, 20–21, 68
Europa (satellite of Jupiter), 86,
182–183
expansion of universe
acceleration of, 227
cone illustration of, 156–158
ongoing, 226–227
redshift as proof of, 146–152
velocity of, 162
extraterrestrial life, 180–186
closest star system that could
support, 183–184
contacting, 184–185
and Cosmological Principle, 180
Fermi paradox regarding, 182
number of possible civilizations,
180–181
and variety of life on Earth,
182–183
F
Fermi, Enrico, 181–182
Fermi paradox, 182
fermions, 168
flat universe, 220, 223, 228–232
FLRW (Friedmann-Lemaitre-
Robertson-Walker) model
of universe, 227–229
four-dimensional space, 209–210
Friedmann, Alexander, 222, 225
Friedmann models of universe,
222–223
Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-
Walker (FLRW) model of
universe, 227–229
G
galaxies. See also Andromeda galaxy;
clusters of galaxies; Milky Way
galaxy
defined, 140
formation of, 137, 163, 173, 175
groups of, 111, 140–141, 173,
175, 207
shape of, 137
soccer game example, 133–139
Galaxy IOK-1, 123
Galilean telescope, 121
Galileo Galilei
blunders of, 72
discoveries of, 56–57, 72–73,
116, 120
name of, 72
overview, 54
game, Kaguya-go Journey, 206–207
gamma rays, 96, 232–233
Ganymede (satellite of Jupiter),
93, 183
gauge particles, 168
Geller, Margaret, 141
general theory of relativity, 224–227
geocentric model, 38–39
disproved by Galileo’s
discoveries, 57
vs. heliocentric model, 55
planetary orbits according to, 70
and positions of Moon and Sun,
42–46
Ptolemy’s contributions to, 51–54
reasons for past popularity of, 69
and size of Sun, 46–49
and Tychonic system, 70–71
giant impact hypothesis, 93
gravitational forces
according to general theory of
relativity, 224–225
bending of light by, 226
and dark energy, 227
and dark matter, 226
in early universe, 173
law of universal gravitation, 173
Newtonian representation of, 224
repulsive force, 224–225, 227
and spaceship travel, 185
gravitational lenses, 226
Great Andromeda Nebula, 120,
144–145. See also
Andromeda galaxy
Great Dark Spot, Neptune's, 89
Great Debate, 144
Great Red Spot, on Jupiter, 86
Great Wall, 141, 163, 207
Grecian explanation of universe,
ancient, 20
groups of galaxies, 111
difference from clusters, 140
distribution of, 173
and superclusters, 207
H
habitable zone, 184
Hale Telescope, Mount Palomar
Observatory, 122
harvest moon festival, 11–12
heliocentric model, 39–40
and Copernicus, 53
diagram of, 54
and Galileo, 57, 72–73
vs. geocentric model, 55
initial missing elements of, 71
significance of, 73
support of by invention of
telescope, 57
support of by Kepler’s Laws,
58, 72
helium, 97, 151–152, 172
Herschel, Frederick William, 118–119
Hertzsprung, Ejnar, 187–188
Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram,
187–188
Hipparchus, 68
Hipparcos High Precision Parallax
Collecting Satellite, 126
Hooke, Robert, 86
Hooker Telescope, Mount Wilson
Observatory, 122
horizon
curvature of, 21–22
distance to, 66
and measurement of cosmic back-
ground radiation, 231
H-R (Hertzsprung-Russell) diagram,
187–188
Hubble, Edwin
brief history of, 142–143
discovery of expansion of
universe, 146–149
Hubble’s constant, 162
Hubble’s law, 122
Hubble Space Telescope,
122–123, 142
Huchra, John, 141
hydrogen, 97, 151–152, 172
hydrostatic equilibrium, 96–97
hydrothermal vent, 182
hypernova, 232–233
hyperspace, 209–210, 219

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