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The Mathematical Mechanic by Mark Levi

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4

INEQUALITIES BY ELECTRIC SHORTING

4.1 Introduction

The following short outline of the necessary background should suffice for the reading of this chapter. More on the concepts described below is in the appendix.

Electrical current. The current in a copper wire is the flow of the “gas” of electrons in the ionic lattice of copper, analogous to the flow of water in a pipe. Just like the flux of water through the pipe is measured in gallons per second, the electric current is measured in units of charge per second, passing through a cross section of the wire. The current is denoted by I and is expressed in coulombs per second, or amperes.

Voltage. Let us consider a steady flow of water in a long pipe. Because of the friction with walls, the water ...

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