What do you want your audience to do? Retention for our purposes means strong ending. It is as necessary to have a strong ending as it is to have a strong beginning. After all, this is the last thing you will be saying, so it only makes sense to make the last thing memorable. Don’t forget that you want your audience not only to remember what you said but to actually go do what you want them to do. So your takeaway has got to be worth taking away. But first, I want to help you avoid a common trap: when you wrap it up, try never to say, “In conclusion . . .” or “In summary . . .” or “To conclude . . .” or “To summarize . . .”

Why? Because if you do, your language sends a signal that you are making a ...

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