Acronyms and Abbreviations
ABWR: advanced breeder water reactor
AFC: alkaline fuel cell
ANWR: Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
BAU: business as usual
BPA: Biomass Power Association
: billion tons of carbon dioxide
BTL: biomass-to-liquids
BTO: Biotechnology Industry Organization
BWR: breeder water reactor
CAA: Clean Air Act
CAFÉ: Corporate Average Fuel Economy
CAIR: Clean Air Interstate Rule
CBO: Congressional Budget Oce
CCGT: combined cycle gas turbine
CCP: critical control points
CCS: carbon capture and storage
: methane
CHP: combined heat and power
CHP: cogenerator heat and power
CNG: compressed natural gas
: carbon dioxide
CRS: Congressional Research Service
CTL: coal to liquids
CWA: Clean Water Act
DBT: design basis threat
DMFC: direct-methanol fuel cell
DOE: Department of Energy
DRB: demonstrated reserve base (Coal)
E10: Fuel containing 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume
E85: Fuel containing a blend of 70% to 85% ethanol and 15% to 30%
gasoline by volume
EGS: engineered (enhanced) geothermal systems
EGS: enhanced geothermal systems
EIA: U.S. Energy Information Administration
EOR: enhanced oil recovery
370  •  Acronyms and Abbreviations
EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPIA: European Photovoltaic Industry Association
EU: European Union
FCV: fuel cell vehicles
FEMP: Federal Energy Management Program
FERC: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FFV: ex-fuel vehicle
FGD: ue gas desulfurization
GDP: gross domestic product
GHG: greenhouse gas
GIF: Generation IV International Forum (Nuclear Energy)
gigaton: billion tons
GRACE: Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (German and NASA
GRI: Gas Research Institute (Illinois Institute of Technology)
GTL: gas-to-liquids
HDNGV: heavy-duty natural gas vehicle
HEV: hybrid electric vehicle
IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency
IFR: integral fast reactor
IGCC: integrated gasication combined cycle
INPRO: International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel
IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ITC: investment tax credit
K: Kelvin (temperature scale that has absolute zero as the base, centigrade
kW: kilowatt, 1000 watts
kWh: kilowatt-hour
LCFS: low-carbon fuel standard
LED: light-emitting diode
LEU: low-enriched uranium
LNG: liqueed natural gas
LPG: liquid petroleum gas
LWR: light water reactor
m: meter
MBD: million barrels per day
MCFC: molten-carbonate fuel cell
MHEV: micro-hybrid electric vehicle
Acronyms and Abbreviations •  371
mpg: miles per gallon
MW: megawatts
MWe: megawatts, electric power
O: nitrous oxide
NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement
NAS: National Academy of Sciences
NEA: Nuclear Energy Association
NEMS: National Energy Modeling System (EIA)
NGL: natural gas liquids
NGPL: natural gas plant liquids
NIMBY: not in my backyard
NPP: nuclear power plants
NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission
OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OPEC: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
PAFC: phosphoric acid fuel cell
PBMR: pebble bed modular reactor
PEMFC: polymer exchange membrane fuel cell
PHEV: plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
PV: photovoltaic (solar)
RES: Renewable Energy Standards
RFG: reformulated gasoline
RFS: Renewable Fuel Standards
RPS: Renewable Portfolio Standard
RTF: Royalty Trust Fund
SAE: Society for Automotive Engineers
SCR: selective catalytic control equipment
: sulfur hexauoride
: sulfur dioxide
SOFC: solid oxide fuel cell
SUV: sport utility vehicle
TAPS: Trans Alaska Pipeline System
TSI: Total Solar Irradiance
TV: television
TWh: trillion watt-hours
USGS: U.S. Geological Survey
VMT: vehicle miles traveled
W: watt
WNA: World Nuclear Association

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