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The Ongoing Technological System by Smaïl Aït-El-Hadjait

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5The Second Wave of the Third Technological System

As early as the mid-1990s, the contemporary technological system underwent powerful transformations, which have generated an unprecedented movement of innovations due to their number and scale, a movement that still lasts.

This innovation movement is based on four components. First, it is driven by the performance growth of the main generic technologies, Information and Communication technologies (ICT), materials and photonics. It is significantly enhanced by convergence and technological recombination phenomena related to the maturity reached by the technological system, particularly in the field of information technology. This convergence extends to other generic technologies, allowing for the emergence of a large amount of new technical systems, products and services that implement this innovation movement. The transformation of the system is amplified by a renewal and technological diversification movement, particularly in the energy field, called environmental transition. It has been brought about by the threat of global warming, which has also become apparent since the 1990s.

This technological change is so massive that it has led to a number of observers investigating its nature to speak of a third industrial revolution currently taking place [RIF 12]. Another observer analyzed and described what he refers to as the fourth industrial revolution [SCH 17]. Furthermore, two research leaders from MIT described and analyzed ...

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