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The Perfect Pass: What the manager can learn from the football trainer by Ed Weenk

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Appendix 6: Balanced Score Card

Norton & Kaplan in their classic article "The Balanced Scorecard – measures that drive performance" (Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb 1992), proposed a set of key performance indicators "like the dials in an airplane cockpit: it gives manager complex information at a glance". In order to not only have a clear view on the results but also on the "how and why?" behind it, they distinguish indicators in 4 categories:

  • Finance: how do we look to shareholders?

  • Customer: how do customers see us?

  • Internal processes: what must we excel at?

  • Innovation and learning: can we continue to improve and create value?

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