c.509 BCE The monarchy in Rome is overthrown and replaced by a republic.
1st century BCE Cicero argues for a return to the Roman Republic after Julius Caesar takes power from the Senate.
1640s The English Civil War and subsequent overthrow of the monarchy establish that a monarch cannot govern without parliamentary consent.
1776 The Declaration of Independence lists “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” as inherent rights.
1948 The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris.
King John of England became increasingly unpopular during his reign ...