1578 The concepts of sovereignty and the divine right of kings emerge, influenced by The Six Books of the Republic by Jean Bodin.
1642–51 The English Civil War temporarily establishes the precedent that the monarch cannot rule without the consent of Parliament.
1688 The Glorious Revolution in England leads to the 1689 Bill of Rights, which limits the powers of the monarch in law.
1689 John Locke opposes absolutist rule, arguing that government should represent the people and protect their rights to life, health, liberty, and possessions.
The Enlightenment period that followed the Middle Ages ...