Rights and duties
1789 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, issued during the French Revolution, defines the universal rights of citizens.
1793 German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder argues for the importance of the nation.
1859 In On Liberty, John Stuart Mill argues for the rights of the individual.
1861 Italy is unified.
1950s Nationalist movements rise around the world as colonies gain independence.
1957 The Treaty of Rome, signed by six European nations, founds the European Economic Community.
The Italian political thinker and activist Giuseppe Mazzini called on people to unite ...