RG

IN CONTEXT

IDEOLOGY

Liberalism

FOCUS

Pro-intellectualism

BEFORE

380 BCE Plato advocates rule by philosopher kings.

1917 In Spain, news of the Russian Revolution instills fear in Primo de Rivera’s regime, which consolidates its power by control of the masses.

AFTER

1936–1939 The Spanish Civil War results in the deaths of more than 200,000 people.

1979 French philosopher Pierre Bourdieu examines the ways that power and social positioning have an influence on aesthetics.

2002 US historian John Lukacs publishes At the End of an Age, arguing that the modern bourgeois age is coming to an end.

Philosopher José Ortega y Gasset first rose to prominence during the ...

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