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The Princeton Companion to Mathematics by Imre Leader, June Barrow-Green, Timothy Gowers

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VI.15 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

b. Leipzig, Germany, 1646; d. Hanover, Germany, 1716

Calculus; theory of linear equations and elimination theory; logic

Renowned among mathematicians for his invention of the calculus, Leibniz was a universal thinker who graduated in law and was self-taught in mathematics. In 1676 he became counselor and librarian in Hanover for the Duke Johann Friedrich of Braunschweig–Lüneburg, holding this position until the end of his life. Besides mathematics he occupied himself with technical, historiographical, political, religious, and philosophical questions. His philosophy distinguished between two areas of reality: the world of appearances and the world of substances. It was in developing his philosophy that he was ...

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