### VII.02 Mathematical Biology

*Michael C. Reed*

### 1 Introduction

Mathematical biology is an extremely large and diverse field. It studies objects ranging from molecules to global ecosystems and the mathematical methods come from many of the subdisciplines of the mathematical sciences: ordinary and partial differential equations, probability theory, numerical analysis, control theory, graph theory, combinatorics, geometry, computer science, and statistics. The most that one short article can do is to illustrate by selected examples this diversity and the range of new mathematical questions that arise naturally in the biological sciences.

### 2 How Do Cells Work?

From the simplest point of view, cells are large biochemical factories that take inputs and ...