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The Safety Critical Systems Handbook, 4th Edition by Kenneth L. Simpson, David J. Smith

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The 2016 Version of IEC 61511

The following is a brief summary of the main changes which have brought about the 2016 update.
The term “application software” has been changed to “application program.”
The “grandfather clause” in ISA84 has been added.
Procedures for competence are called for.
It is possible to claim up to one risk reduction layer within the process control system for the same hazard event when it is also the initiating event and two risk reduction layers if it is not part of the initiating cause (see Chapter 8).
The Architectures table has been revised and the term “safe failure fraction” deleted (see Chapter 8).
New clause on security vulnerabilities added.
Requirements for “application program” development have been significantly reduced ...

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