Earth science


1824 Norwegian Jens Esmark suggests that glaciers are responsible for the creation of fjords, erratics, and moraines.

1830 Charles Lyell argues that the laws of nature have always been the same, so the clues to the past lie in the present.

1835 Swiss geologist Jean de Charpentier argues that erratics near Lake Geneva were transported by ice from the Mont Blanc area in an “Alpine glaciation.”


1875 Scottish scientist James Croll argues that variations in Earth’s orbit could explain the temperature changes that cause an ice age.

1938 Serbian physicist Milutin Milankovic relates changes in climate to periodic changes ...

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