1668 Francesco Redi demonstrates that maggots arise from flies—and not spontaneously.
1745 John Needham boils broth to kill microbes, and believes that spontaneous generation has occurred when they grow back.
1768 Lazzaro Spallanzani shows that microbes do not grow in boiled broth when air is excluded.
1881 Robert Koch isolates microbes that cause disease.
1953 Stanley Miller and Harold Urey create amino acids—essential to life—in an experiment that simulates origin-of-life conditions.
Modern biology teaches that living things can only arise from other living things by a process of reproduction. This may seem self-evident ...