Artificial intelligence


1950 Alan Turing suggests a test to measure machine intelligence (the Turing Test).

1955 American programmer Arthur Samuel improves his program to play tic-tac-toe by writing one that learns to play.

1956 The term “artificial intelligence” is coined by American John McCarthy.

1960 American psychologist Frank Rosenblatt makes a computer with neural networks that learn from experience.


1968 MacHack, the first chess program to achieve a good level of skill, is created by American Richard Greenblatt.

1997 World chess champion Garry Kasparov is defeated by IBM’s Deep Blue computer.

Computers in 1961 were ...

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