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The Sustainable Network by Sarah Sorensen

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[1] “Smart 2020,” commissioned by the Global eSustainability Initiative (GeSI), with analysis by McKinsey & Company (www.SMART2020.org).

[4] Computer History Museum’s “Internet History.” More milestones can be found at www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/.

[5] “Mouse Inventor Strives for More,” BBC News, November 5, 2001 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1633972.stm). During an interview, Engelbart said, “SRI patented the mouse, but they really had no idea of its value. Some years later it was learned that they had licensed it to Apple for something like $40,000.”

[6] The World Fact Book, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 2008 (Skyhorse Publishing).

[7] Top 10 emerging markets: China, India, Russia, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, Indonesia, Iran, Poland, and Saudi Arabia. Top 10 developed markets: U.S., Japan, Germany, UK, France, Italy, Spain, Canada, South Korea, and Australia; source: IMF, ITU, Morgan Stanley Research.

[8] Informa Telecoms & Media

[9] Gartner Group as reported in “Broadband to reach 77% of U.S. households by 2012 Gartner says: Broadband penetration currently reaches just over half of U.S. homes,” Brad Reed, Gartner Group, Network World, July 24, 2008 (www.networkworld.com/news/2008/072408-broadband-penetration-gartner-study.html?hpg1=bn).

[10] “Broadband to reach 77% of U.S. households by 2012, Garner says,” Network World, Brad Reed, July 24, 2008 (http://www.networkworld.com/news/2008/072408-broadband-penetration-gartner-study.html?hpg1=bn).

[11] Dave Clark

[13] “Two billion new Bourgeois using cell phones,” Stephane Teral, Infonetics Research, March 24, 2009.

[14] “Is Silicon Valley Losing Its Magic?”, Steve Hamm, BusinessWeek, January 12, 2009.

[15] “Boom in the Bust,” Economist, March 7, 2009.

[16] “Apple’s Ambitious iPhone 3G Plans,” Peter Burrows, BusinessWeek, August 22, 2008

[17] Rajesh Jain, NetCore Solutions Ltd., Web 2.0 Conference presentation, 2008.

[18] “Two billion new Bourgeois using cell phones,” Stephane Teral, Infonetics Research, March 24, 2009.

[19] Rajesh Jain, NetCore Solutions Ltd., Web 2.0 Conference presentation 2008.

[20] “More than 633 million mobile subscribers in China,” ilinca, unwired view, January 6, 2009 (www.unwiredview.com/2009/01/06/more-than-633-million-mobile-subscribers-in-china/).

[21] “Two billion new Bourgeois using cell phones,” Stephane Teral, Infonetics Research, March 24, 2009.

[22] “China Mobile Subscribers Surpass Total US Population,” eMediaWire, April 6, 2007 (www.nextbillion.net/news/china-mobile-subscribers-surpass-total-us-population).

[24] The ICT industry refers to the full range of devices and applications that play a role in digital communication; ranging from monitors and cell phones to PCs and storage devices; all the different applications that enable the sharing or use of information, from email and online services to spreadsheets and video games; and the hardware and software needed to operate the networks that transmit the information, from the smallest home office to the largest global networks.

[25] “China Mobile Subscribers Surpass Total US Population,” eMediaWire, April 6, 2007 (www.nextbillion.net/news/china-mobile-subscribers-surpass-total-us-population).

[26] “Poorer Nations Go Online on Cellphones,” Tom Wright, Wall Street Journal, December 5, 2008 (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122844530354182063.html?mod=todays_us_marketplace).

[27] “Brazil Telecom and Service Provider Router Market,” Synergy Research Group, 2008.

[28] “Brazil Telecom and Service Provider Router Market,” Synergy Research Group, 2008.

[29] “Service Provider and Enterprise Telecom and Datacom Equipment Market Share and Forecasts,” Infonetics Research, July 2008.

[30] According to CIA World Factbook, as reported by Nationmaster, which pools statistics takenfrom sources such as the CIA World Factbook, UN, and OECD (www.nationmaster.com/graph/med_tel-media-televisions).

[31] “Video Surge Divides Web Watchers,” Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2007.

[32] A helpful website you can use to translate between bits and bytes is www.matisse.net/bitcalc/?input_amount=1&input_units=gigabits&notation=legacy.

[33] “Broadband to reach 77% of U.S. households by 2012 Gartner says: Broadband penetration currently reaches just over half of U.S. homes,” Brad Reed, Network World, July 24, 2008 (www.networkworld.com/news/2008/072408-broadband-penetration-gartner-study.html?hpg1=bn).

[34] “Global Broadband Subscribers hit 400 million,” CBS MarketWatch, November 2008 (www.marketwatch.com/news/story/Global-Broadband-Subscribers-Hit-400/story.aspx?guid=%7bFB19043A-A38C-480F-BECD-CF90E0CDF447%7d).

[35] HeavyReading

[36] “The Coming Exaflood,” Bret Swanson, Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2007 (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB116925820512582318.html).

[37] “FCC redefines “broadband” to mean 768 Kbps, “fast” to mean ‘kinda slow,’” Nilay Patel, March 19, 2008 (www.engadget.com/2008/03/19/fcc-redefines-broadband-to-mean-768kbps-fast-to-mean-kinda/).

[38] “Fiber in the Last Mile,” Pyramid Research (www.pyr.com/downloads.htm?id=1&sc=LR020909_FBR).

[39] Fiber to the Home Council and Infonetics Research

[40] “Fiber in the Last Mile,” Pyramid Research

[41] Wireless Intelligence Report, September 2008

[42] HeavyReading

[43] “The Coming Exaflood,” Bret Swanson, Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2007 (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB116925820512582318.html).

[44] 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc., Cisco Visual Networking Index, “Approaching the Zettabyte Era,” June 16, 2008.

[45] 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc., Cisco Visual Networking Index, “Approaching the Zettabyte Era,” June 16, 2008.

[46] “Juniper Networks Helps Laboratory of Neuro Imaging Double Network Performance, Cut IT Management Time in Half: Juniper’s High-Performance Network Infrastructure Accelerates the Deployment of Applications and Services for Conducting Cutting-Edge Research,” press release, December 3, 2008 (www.juniper.net/company/presscenter/pr/2008/pr_2008_12_03-16_53.html).

[47] “Network management: Tips for managing costs,” Karen D. Schwartz, Computerworld, August 27, 2008 (www.computerworld.com/s/article/9113604/Network_management_Tips_for_managing_costs?taxonomyId=14&pageNumber=1&taxonomyName=Management).

[48] “Video Surge Divides Web Watchers,” Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2007.

[49] University of Minnesota and Cisco Systems

[50] comScore global in September 2008 and Morgan Stanley Research

[51] New Tee Vee conference stats for the month of September 2008

[52] “Video Surge Divides Web Watchers,” Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2007.

[53] “Approaching the Zettabyte Era,” 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc., Cisco Visual Networking Index, June 16, 2008.

[54] “The Coming Exaflood,” Bret Swanson, Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2007 (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB116925820512582318.html).

[55] Bernstein Report, 2007

[56] “It’s Personal: Similarities and Differences in Online Social Network Use Between Teens and Adults,” by Amanda Lenhart, The Pew Internet and American Life Project, May 23, 2009 (www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf).

[57] Bernstein Report, 2007

[60] Minnesota Internet Traffic Studies (MINTS), March 2009 (www.dtc.umn.edu/mints/home.php).

[61] TelecomView, “Telecom 2020: TransformationStrategies,” October 2008.

[63] “It’s Personal: Similarities and Differences in Online Social Network Use Between Teens and Adults,” Amanda Lenhart, The Pew Internet and American Life Project, May 23, 2009 (www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf).

[64] “It’s Personal: Similarities and Differences in Online Social Network Use Between Teens and Adults,” by Amanda Lenhart, The Pew Internet and American Life Project, May 23, 2009 (www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Social_Media_Final.pdf).

[65] “Internet Interrupted: Why Architectural Limitations Will Fracture the ‘Net,” Nemertes Research, November 2008.

[66] “How did Michael Jackson’s death affect the internet’s performance?”, Emma Barnett, Telegraph.co.uk, June 26, 2009 (www.telegraph.co.uk/scienceandtechnology/technology/5649500/How-did-Michael-Jacksons-death-affect-the-internets-performance.html; “News sites swamped following Michael Jackson’s death,” cnet, Greg Sandoval, June 25, 2009 (http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-10273325-93.html).

[67] Globe and Mail (Toronto), September 17, 2008

[68] “Customers Angered as iPhones Overload AT&T,” New York Times, Jenna Wortham, September 2, 2009 (http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/03/technology/companies/03att.html?_ r=1&scp=15&sq=network%20security&st=cse).

[69] “Inauguration Crowd Will Test Cellphone Networks,” Matt Richtel, New York Times, January 19, 2009 (http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/19/technology/19iht-19cell).

[70] “Inauguration Crowd Will Test Cellphone Networks,” Matt Richtel, New York Times, January 19, 2009 (http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/19/technology/19iht-19cell).

[71] “Online inauguration videos set records,” John D. Sutter, CNN, January 23, 2009 (www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/01/21/inauguration.online.video/).

[72] “Worldwide Telecommunications Equipment 1H08 Market Share Update,” IDC, #214275, Volume: 1, September 2008.

[73] Tom Nolle, CIMI Corp., Netwatcher, 18.1% of service provider CAPEX is on infrastructure and 3–5% of that is on IP.

[74] Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors on a chip will double about every two years (www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/).

[75] Over a three-year time period. “Stress Fractures in the Internet by 2012,” Nemertes Press Release, November 19, 2008 (www.nemertes.com/press_releases/nemertes_press_release_stress_fractures_internet_2012).

[76] “Broadband subs hit 400 million, ‘Net bending under the weight,” FierceTelecom, November 19, 2008 (www.fiercetelecom.com/story/broadband-subs-hit-400-million-net-bending-underweight/2008-11-19).

[77] “A Broadband Stimulus Plan,” Michael Mandel, BusinessWeek, January 6, 2009 (www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/jan2009/db2009015_446050.htm?link_position=link1).

[78] Nemertes Research

[79] ITU, 2009 press release

[80] T-Mobile, April 2009

[81] “Mobile Planet Connecting the World,” Guy Daniels and Ian Channing, 2007.

[82] “Mobile Connections Reach 4 Billion Worldwide,” 3G Americas Press Release, December 22, 2008.

[84] “Mobile/WiFi Phones and Subscribers report,” Infonetics Research, March 24, 2009.

[86] Informa Telecoms & Media

[87] “Mobile Broadband Cards, Routers, Services and Subscribers, 4Q08,” Infonetics Research, March 10, 2009. Infonetics Research defines mobile broadband to include W-CDMA/HSPA and CDMA2000/EV-DO.

[88] Informa Telecoms & Media

[89] “Mobile Broadband Cards, Routers, Services and Subscribers, 4Q08,” Infonetics Research, March 10, 2009. Infonetics Research defines mobile broadband to include W-CDMA/HSPA and CDMA2000/EV-DO.

[90] “Mobile Connections Reach 4 Billion Worldwide,” 3G Americas press release, December 22, 2008.

[91] “Mobile Connections Reach 4 Billion Worldwide,” 3G Americas press release, December 22, 2008.

[92] Morgan Stanley, 2008

[93] “Unwired: The Decline of the Landline,” Economist, August 13, 2009.

[94] “Presence Based Services Market 2008–2013,” Insight Research Corporation, December 2008.

[95] “Location Based Services Market, 2008–2013,” Insight Research Corporation, October 2008.

[96] “Spies in Your Mobile Phone,” Heather Green, BusinessWeek, January 13, 2009 (www.businessweek.com/print/technology/content/jan2009/tc20090112_390493.htm).

[97] “Spies in Your Mobile Phone,” Heather Green, BusinessWeek, January 13, 2009 (www.businessweek.com/print/technology/content/jan2009/tc20090112_390493.htm).

[98] Pew Internet Research, 2008. Six percent of cell phone owners read a news story on a cell phone and 7% of BlackBerry, iPhone, or other smartphone users used the device to read a news story.

[99] “The Mobile Phone and Financial Applications Worldwide, 2009–2014,” Insight Research Corporation, April 2009.

[100] “Broadband Wireless Sector Analysis Report,” New Paradigm Resources (NPR) Group, December 2008. Twenty and a half percent of smartphone users perform mobile banking; among users with basic cell phones, it’s only 2.7%. Currently, 24% of all cell phones in the U.S. market today are smartphones.

[101] According to a survey conducted by research, data, and strategic analysis firm The Kelsey Group in conjunction with research partner ConStat.

[102] “Smartphone Adoption Accelerates Mobile Local Search,” The Kelsey Group and ConStat (www.marketingcharts.com/interactive/smartphone-adoption-accelerates-mobile-localsearch-6672/).

[103] Gartner Symposium/ITxpo: Emerging Trends (www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=503867).

[105] “Green ICT: Banking on a software solution to climate change,” Rikki Stancich, Climate Change Corp, October 22, 2008, (www.climatechangecorp.com/content.asp?ContentID=5727).

[106] “Current Technology Could Reduce Emissions 55 Percent Below 1990 Levels by 2030,” Business Wire (www.businesswire.com/portal/site/home/email/headlines/?ndmViewId=news_view&newsLang=en&div=-564504432&newsId=20090126006105).

[107] “A Climate Risk Report: Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future. Telecommunications-based opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,” Climate Risk (www.climaterisk.net).

[108] Edward L. Glaeser is a professor of economics at Harvard University, a City Journal contributing editor, and a Manhattan Institute senior fellow. His article describes research jointly performed with Matthew Kahn of UCLA.

[109] “Defra 2007: Act On C02 Calculator Public Trial Version - Data, Methodology and Assumptions,” United Kingdom’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

[110] “Study: Trees absorb one-fifth of CO2 gas,” UPI.com, February 19, 2009. (www.upi.com/Science_News/2009/02/19/Study_Trees_absorb_one-fifth_of_CO2_gas/UPI-11191235069651/).

[111] “Everyday tips to reduce your carbon footprint,” Kristi King, WTOP Radio, February 23, 2009 (www.wtopnews.com/?nid=220&sid=1608351).

[112] “The Illusion of Clean Coal,” Economist, March 7, 2009.

[113] Broadcast on National Public Radio (NPR), February 26, 2009.

[114] Edward L. Glaeser is a professor of economics at Harvard University, a City Journal contributing editor, and a Manhattan Institute senior fellow. His article describes research jointly performed with Matthew Kahn of UCLA.

[115] “Everyday tips to reduce your carbon footprint,” Kristi King, WTOP Radio, February 23, 2009 (www.wtopnews.com/?nid=220&sid=1608351).

[117] “Benefits of Trees in Urban Areas” (www.coloradotrees.org/benefits.htm).

[119] “‘Eco-generosity’ To Make Waves in 2009,” Environmental Leader, January 21, 2009 (www.environmentalleader.com/2009/01/21/eco-generosity-to-make-waves-in-2009/).

[120] IBM Television Advertisement, CBS, March 21, 2009.

[121] Center for Urban Transportation Research, Federal Highway Administration, Texas Transportation Institute. U.S. drivers spent 4.2 billion hours sitting in traffic in 2005 alone.

[122] EU Intelligent Car Initiative Brochure

[123] IBM Television Advertisement, CBS, March 21, 2009.

[124] IBM Television Advertisement, CBS, March 21, 2009.

[125] “A Climate Risk Report: Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future. Telecommunications-based opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,” Climate Risk (www.climaterisk.net).

[127] “Powerful Systems Bring Efficiencies to Roads, Rail, Water and Food Distribution,” Steve Lohr, New York Times, May 30, 2009.

[129] “Promoting energy efficiency in the developing world,” Diana Farrell and Jaana Remes, McKinsey Quarterly, February 2009 (www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Economic_Studies/Country_Reports/Promoting_energy_efficiency_in_the_developing_world_2295).

[130] “Promoting energy efficiency in the developing world,” Diana Farrell and Jaana Remes, McKinsey Quarterly, February 2009 (www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Economic_Studies/Country_Reports/Promoting_energy_efficiency_in_the_developing_world_2295).

[131] “Promoting energy efficiency in the developing world,” Diana Farrell and Jaana Remes, McKinsey Quarterly, February 2009 (www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Economic_Studies/Country_Reports/Promoting_energy_efficiency_in_the_developing_world_2295).

[133] “High-Tech, Low Carbon: The Role of the European Digital Technology Industry in Tackling Climate Change,” EICTA and INTELLECT, April 2008.

[134] The McKinsey Quarterly, 2008

[136] David Lewis presentation from Nokia Siemens

[137] “Encourage the Rebels,” Vinod Khosla, Newsweek, December 15, 2008 (www.newsweek.com/id/171909).

[138] Advanced Metering Infrastructure from Itron (www.itron.com/pages/solutions_detail.asp?id=itr_016422.xml).

[140] “Data Center Overload,” Tom Vanderbilt, New York Times Magazine, June 8, 2009.

[141] The Green Power for Mobile program is spearheaded by the GSM Association.

[142] The North American Network Operations Group

[143] Greenhouse Gas Protocol

[144] IBM Advertisement, Monday, November 24, 2008, San Jose Mercury News, page 10A

[145] IBM Advertisement, Monday, November 24, 2008, San Jose Mercury News, page 10A

[148] Source: Nielsen Survey—3Q08

[150] “Google looking to go green is the right kind of power grab,” Eric Schmidt, San Jose Mercury News, September 2008 (www.siliconvalley.com/latestheadlines/ci_10838269).

[151] “The Climate for Change,” Al Gore, New York Times, November 9, 2008 (www.nytimes.com/2008/11/09/opinion/09gore.html?_r=3&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink&oref=slogin).

[152] BCC Research

[153] “Google unveils software to cut household energy waste,” Matt Nauman, San Jose Mercury News, February 10, 2009.

[154] “Google unveils software to cut household energy waste,” Matt Nauman, San Jose Mercury News, February 10, 2009.

[155] “Enterprise And SMB Hardware Survey, North America And Europe, Q3 2008,” Forrester Research. Hardware technology decision makers from North American and European enterprises (percentages may not total 100 because of rounding).

[156] Lux’s definition of the “power web” market includes smart-metering hardware and software, networking technologies, energy storage (including batteries for both the grid and electric vehicles), flywheels, and supercapacitors, as well as alternative grid-connected power sources, including fuel cells. The definition excludes renewable generation systems like solar, wind, and tidal power, and the electric vehicles themselves (www.luxresearchinc.com/info/smr?power_smr).

[157] Morgan Stanley says the sector is composed of advanced metering infrastructure, demand response, and transmission and distribution automation.

[158] “Powerful Systems Bring Efficiencies to Roads, Rail, Water and Food Distribution,” Steve Lohr, New York Times, April 30, 2009.

[159] “Google unveils software to cut household energy waste,” Matt Nauman, San Jose Mercury News, February 10, 2009.

[160] “CIA Admits Cyberattacks Blacked Out Cities,” Thomas Claburn, InformationWeek, January 18, 2008, citing Tom Donahue.

[162] “U.S. Cyber Infrastructure Vulnerable to Attacks,” Yochi J. Dreazen and Siobhan Gorman, Wall Street Journal, May 6, 2009 (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124153427633287573.html).

[163] These reliability standards were developed by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), which the FERC has designated as the electric reliability organization (ERO).

[164] “Energy Efficiency in Telecom Networks,” August 27, 2008; and Green Telecom and IT Summit at CTIA, “Greening the Network,” Nokia-Siemens presentation, David Lewis, Director of Customer Marketing in North America, Light Reading Webinar, September 10, 2008.

[165] “Environmental Implications of Wireless Technologies: News Delivery and Business Meetings,” Michael W. Toffel and Arpad Horvath, Environmental Science and Technology (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es035035o).

[166] “The Carbon Footprint of Email Spam Report,” McAfee report, released April 15, 2009 (www.icfi.com/).

[168] Environmental impact estimates were made by GXS using the Environmental Defense Fund Paper Calculator. For more information, visit www.papercalculator.org. Additional gallons of gasoline calculations were made by GXS using EPA data.

[169] “E-Invoicing Solution Selection Report,” Lesley Keene and Jeff Pikulik, Aberdeen Group, December 2005.

[170] “Sector-Specific Issues and Reporting Methodologies Supporting the General Guidelines for the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases,” Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Department of Energy puts average tree cover at 700 per acre.

[172] David Lewis, Nokia Siemens

[173] Dr. Shyue-Ching Lu, Chunghwa Telecom’s chairman and CEO, 2008.

[175] Center for Urban Transportation Research, Federal Highway Administration, Texas Transportation Institute

[176] CDP6 Report, 2008 (www.cdproject.net).

[177] Center For Urban Transportation Research, Federal Highway Administration, Texas Transportation Institute

[183] The average car in the U.S. produces 98 pounds of carbon for every 100 miles (www.terrapass.com/carbon-footprint-calculator/).

[184] Energy Saving Trust (www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/)

[185] Carbon abatement of approximately 1,144 pounds for the year.

[186] Referenced by Chunghwa Telecom, study conducted in 2007.

[187] Szomolanyi, K. (ed.), Greenhouse gas effect of information and communication technologies, 2005.

[188] Center for Urban Transportation Research, Federal Highway Administration, Texas Transportation Institute.

[189] Center for Urban Transportation Research, Federal Highway Administration, Texas Transportation Institute.

[190] “A stress test for good intentions,” Economist, May 16, 2009.

[193] Cisco Systems, WebEx advertisement, April 9, 2009.

[194] Aberdeen Group

[195] Gartner Group, May 2008

[196] “Hosted UC: Latest Market Numbers and Trends,” Frost & Sullivan, Melanie Turek, May 4, 2009 (www.nojitter.com/blog/archives/2009/05/hosted_uc_lates.html;jsessionid=QEVRGZMAMWPJUQSNDLOSKH0CJUNN2JVN).

[197] “Growth of Unified Communications Services to Dwarf Products Growth,” MarketWire, January 9, 2009.

[198] 2008 Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) report

[199] “Green Telecom East: Verizon’s Thermal Ware,” Dan Jones, Unstrung, June 17, 2009.

[200] “Green IT Initiative in Japan,” METI, October 2008 (www.meti.go.jp/english/policy/index_information_policy.html).

[201] “METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) Takes Aggressive Lead to Reduce Power Consumption of IT Device Starting Next Year,” Asahi Shimbun, 2007. The goal of Japan’s METI “Green IT Project” is to reduce router power consumption by 30%.

[202] “High Tech: Low Carbon: The Role of the European Digital Technology Industry in Tackling Climate Change,” EICTA, April 2008.

[203] CIMI, Netwatcher, 2009

[204] Unstrung Insider, Light Reading, vol. 7, no. 8, December 2008.

[205] Cisco Systems

[207] “Being Ecologically Sound Makes Economic Sense,” Sun’s Eco Innovation Initiative, 2008.

[208] IDC Multiclient Study, Server Virtualization On the Move 2007.

[212] “RPA Calculator Analyzes Cost Savings of Reusable Packaging,” Environmental Leader, March 19, 2009.

[213] “Data Center Overload,” Michael Manos (then GM of Data Center Services for Microsoft), New York Times Magazine, June 8, 2009 (www.nytimes.com/2009/06/14/magazine/14search-t.html?pagewanted=2&_r=2&partner=rss&emc=rss).

[214] “Building, Planning and Operating the Next-Generation Datacenter,” IDC, 2008.

[215] Nemertes Research

[216] Advanced Micro Devices

[217] “It: Slashing the Digital Carbon Footprint,” Institute for Sustainable Communication, Fortune.

[218] British Telecom

[219] According to a report by management consulting firm McKinsey & Company and the Uptime Institute.

[220] Anson Wu, Market Transformation Programme figures based on projected 2007 server consumption as a proportion of 2006 total UK electricity consumption (excluding transport), updated from 2005 DUKES energy consumption, as reported in “High Tech: Low Carbon: The Role of the European Digital Technology Industry in Tackling Climate Change,” EICTA, April 2008.

[221] Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, as reported in “High Tech: Low Carbon: The Role of the European Digital Technology Industry in Tackling Climate Change,” EICTA, April 2008.

[222] Zukunftsmarkt energieeffiziente Rechenzentren, PD Dr. Klaus Fichter, 2007 (www.borderstep.de), as reported in “High Tech: Low Carbon: The Role of the European Digital Technology Industry in Tackling Climate Change,” EICTA, April 2008.

[223] According to a report by management consulting firm McKinsey & Company and the Uptime Institute.

[224] The North American Network Operations Group

[225] “Enterprise And SMB Hardware Survey, North America And Europe, Q3 2008,” Forrester Research. Hardware technology decision-makers from North American and European enterprises (percentages may not total 100 because of rounding).

[226] “How Much Time, Once the Cooling Fails,” Rich Miller, Data Center Knowledge, Hosting365, February 8, 2008, (www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2008/02/08/how-muchtime-once-the-cooling-fails/).

[227] “High Tech: Low Carbon: The Role of the European Digital Technology Industry in Tackling Climate Change,” April 2008.

[228] “Cool More with Less in Your Data Center,” Paul McGuckin, Gartner Group, October 2008.

[229] “Sun’s Green Efforts Teach a Lesson,” Internetnews.com, January 28, 2009 (www.internetnews.com/infra/article.php/10796_3799011_1).

[231] “Microsoft to Cut Carbon Footprint by 30 percent,” Environmental Leader, March 16, 2009.

[234] “High Tech: Low Carbon: The Role of the European Digital Technology Industry in Tackling Climate Change,” EICTA, April 2008.

[236] “Stanford Business School Study Finds MBA Graduates Want to Work for Caring and Ethical Employers,” Press Release, Stanford Graduate School, July 26, 2004 (www.csrwire.com/press/press_release/20993-Stanford-Business-School-Study-Finds-MBA-Graduates-Want-to-Work-for-Caring-and-Ethical-Employers).

[237] “Corporate Ethics and Fair Trading - A Nielsen Global Consumer Report,” Nielsen, October 2008.

[238] CDP surveyed 87 individuals at 80 finance institutions (all of whom are CDP Signatory Investors) including Allianz, AXA Group, BlackRock, Goldman Sachs, Hermes Investment Management, and Swiss Re to assess how CDP and other climate change data is used (www.cdproject.net).

[239] The U.S. added 4 companies from its 2008 tally for a winning total of 20 companies, knocking the UK to second, with 19 (down from 24 in 2008). Japan added 2, to total 15 companies this year. Rounding out the top 5 were France (8) and Germany (7), while Canada, Finland, and Sweden each had 5 companies on the list. Two-thirds (65/100) of the 2008 companies remained on the list in 2009, and 46 of the 100 companies have been in existence for at least 100 years.

[246] ITIF added speed and price to the broadband penetration equation to demonstrate what it believed to be a more complete picture of a nation’s broadband rankings.

[247] “Obama: Broadband, Computers Part of Stimulus Package,” Grant Gross, IDG News Service, December 8, 2008.

[248] See the OECD broadband portal for more information on data sources and notes.

[249] See the OECD broadband portal for information on data sources and notes.

[251] “Obama: Broadband, Computers Part of Stimulus Package,” Grant Gross, IDG News Service, December 8, 2008.

[253] “The Future of Telecommunications 2008–2013,” The Insight Research Corporation (www.insight-corp.com/reports/futuretel08.asp). According to this report, estimates and predictions include narrowband and broadband landline, wireless, and cellular services, as well as Internet communications.

[254] eBay Q308 earnings and Morgan Stanley Research

[256] “Federal CIO Vivek Kundra Sees Potential of Cloud Computing,” InformationWeek, Mary Hayes Weier, April 24, 2009.

[257] “Video Surge Divides Web Watchers,” Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2007.

[258] “The Coming Exaflood,” Bret Swanson, Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2007.

[259] “U.S. Steps Up Effort on Digital Defenses,” David E. Sanger et al., New York Times, April 28, 2009.

[260] According to Kiva.org website, April 30, 2009.

[263] “When Small Loans Make a Big Difference,” Forbes, June 3, 2008 (www.forbes.com/entrepreneursfinance/2008/06/03/kiva-microfinance-uganda-ent-fin-cx_0603whartonkiva.html).

[264] “Proctor and Gamble Connect + Develop web site,” (www.pgconnectdevelop.com/pg-connection-portal/ctx/noauth/PortalHome.do).

[265] “Gartner: Four Disruptions That Will Transform the Software Industry,” Thomas Wailgum, CIO Magazine, October 15, 2008. (www.cio.com/article/454930/Gartner_Four_Disruptions_That_Will_Transform_the_Software_Industry).

[266] “Eight business technology trends to watch,” James M. Manyika et al., December 2007, McKinsey Quarterly (www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Information_Technology/Applications/Eight_business_technology_trends_to_watch_2080).

[267] Incubator 2.0 Session at Web 2.0 Summit, November 5–7 with Dave McClure, 500 Hats; Jeff Clavier, Softtech VC; Ron Conway, Angel Investors; Josh Kopelman, First Round Capital; Paul Graham, YCombinator.

[268] “Infrastructure Slideshow: IT Trends for 2009,” Baseline (www.baselinemag.com/c/a/Infrastructure/IT-Trends-for-2009/).

[269] “EU to sue Britain for not applying Internet privacy rules on Phorm advertising tracker,” Aoife White, AP, Brussels, April 14, 2009.

[270] “The State of Retailing Online,” Forrester Research, 2008.

[271] “Simultaneous Surfers,” Burt Helm, BusinessWeek, May 25, 2009.

[272] From PayPal’s website (www.paypal-media.com/aboutus.cfm).

[273] The company was founded in 1998 and then acquired by eBay, the world’s largest online marketplace, in 2002 in a transaction valued at approximately $1.5 billion.

[274] U.S.-based Pew Internet Project Study, 2007.

[275] Wikipedia’s definition of spacetime is “any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum. Spacetime is usually interpreted with space being three-dimensional and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort than the spatial dimensions” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spacetime).

[276] “Stock Traders Find Speed Pays, in Milliseconds,” Charles Duhigg, New York Times, July 24, 2009 (www.nytimes.com/2009/07/24/business/24trading.html?_r=2&hp).

[277] “Putting Africa on the map,” Jonathan Ledgard, Economist.com (www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12494557).

[278] “Putting Africa on the map,” Jonathan Ledgard, Economist.com (www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12494557).

[279] “Mexican Women’s Movement Makes the Internet Work for Many Women,” Erika Smith, November/December 1998 (www.isoc.org/oti/articles/1197/smith.html).

[280] “Reporter’s notebook: Boiling emotions in China,” Jaime FlorCruz, CNN, July 8, 2009 (www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/07/08/china.uyghurs.florcruz/index.html).

[281] “Iranians dodging government’s Internet crackdown,” Doug Gross, CNN, June 18, 2009 (www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/06/18/iran.dodging.crackdown/index.html).

[282] “Pope Demands Bishop Recant Holocaust Position,” NPR, February 4, 2009, and “Pope Acknowledges Vatican Mistakes in Bishop Case,” NPR, March 12, 2009.

[283] “Pope Acknowledges Vatican Mistakes in Bishop Case,” NPR, March 12, 2009.

[284] “Outrage - and a Plea for Business to Lead,” Manjeet Kripalani, BusinessWeek, December 15, 2008.

[285] “The Internet and the 2008 Election,” Pew Internet, June 2008.

[286] “The Internet and the 2008 Election,” Pew Internet, June 2008.

[287] “The Internet and the 2008 Election,” Pew Internet, June 2008.

[288] “Text the Vote,” New York Times, Garrett M. Graff, August 12, 2008 (http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/13/opinion/13graff.html).

[290] “Banking on Becoming President, Politicians & Elections,” OpenSecrets.org, (www.opensecrets.org/pres08/index.php).

[291] August 12, 2008

[292] September comScore numbers

[293] “Politics Makes New Bedfellows,” Steve Smith, minonline, October 24, 2008 (www.minonline.com/news/8950.html).

[294] “The Internet and the 2008 Election,” Pew Internet, June 2008.

[295] “The Internet and the 2008 Election,” Pew Internet, June 2008.

[296] “The Internet and the 2008 Election,” Pew Internet, June 2008.

[297] “The Internet and the 2008 Election,” Pew Internet, June 2008.

[298] “Eyes of the World Are on Obama,” Jeff Zeleny, New York Times, April 2, 2009.

[299] “Beijing Delays Rule on Software Censor,” Michael Wines, New York Times, June 30, 2009 (www.nytimes.com/2009/07/01/technology/01china.html?_r=2&partner=rss&emc=rss); “China’s Information Dam: Should Yahoo!, Google and Microsoft help the censors?” The Washington Post, June 29, 2009 (www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/28/AR2009062802398.html).

[300] “China’s Green Dam: The Implications of Government Control Encroaching on the Home PC,” OpenNet Initiative (http://opennet.net/chinas-green-dam-the-implications-governmentcontrol-encroaching-home-pc).

[301] “Cisco File Raises Censorship Concerns: Document Implies Support for China,” Glenn Kessler, Washington Post, May 20, 2008 (www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/05/19/AR2008051902661.html).

[302] “Google caught up in China censorship debate,” John Boudreau, San Jose Mercury, June 28, 2009 (www.mercurynews.com/ci_12691151?IADID=Search-www.mercurynews.com-www.mercurynews.com).

[303] “Cost of Selling ‘Net Monitoring’ to Iran,” Bob Brewin, nextgov, June 29, 2009 (http://whatsbrewin.nextgov.com/2009/06/cost_of_selling_net_monitoring.php).

[305] “Internet Censorship, Saudi Style,” Peter Burrows, BusinessWeek, November 13, 2008 (www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/08_47/b4109068380136.htm).

[306] “Internet Censorship, Saudi Style,” Peter Burrows, BusinessWeek, November 13, 2008 (www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/08_47/b4109068380136.htm).

[307] “Internet Censorship, Saudi Style,” Peter Burrows, BusinessWeek, November 13, 2008 (www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/08_47/b4109068380136.htm).

[308] “EU to sue Britain for not applying Internet privacy rules on Phorm advertising tracker,” Aoife White, AP, Brussels, April 14, 2009.

[309] “Strewth! Will stickybeak Oz pollies come a gutzer over shonky web censorship plan?” Martyn Warwick, October 31, 2008.

[310] “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights” (www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/).

[311] “Google, Yahoo, Microsoft Set Common Voice Abroad,” Jessica E. Vascellaro et al., Wall Street Journal, October 28, 2008 (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122516304001675051.html).

[312] A good summary of the Act can be found at www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h111-2271.

[314] “Obama urged to punish US firms for aiding internet censorship,” Bobbie Johnson and Daniel Nasaw, Guardian, June 30, 2009 (www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jun/30/us-firmsaiding-censorship).

[315] Bill proposed by Sens. Charles Schumer, D-NY and Lindsey Graham, R-SC, as reported in “Cost of Selling ‘Net Monitoring’ to Iran,” Bob Brewin, nextgov, June 29, 2009 (http://whatsbrewin.nextgov.com/2009/06/cost_of_selling_net_monitoring.php).

[316] Actual headlines: “Canadian grocery chain Sobeys’ software crash lasts 5 days,” “British Telecom BT SurfTime upgrade prematurely cancels service,” “Network Solutions outage bumps Nasdaq off the Internet,” “Skype outage hits 220 million users,” “Program glitch disrupts 619 calls (So.Cal) for most of day,” “eBay embarrassed by crash and 22-hour outage, plunge of stock; traced to absence of upgrade,” “Amazon S3 Outage Casts Cloud on Cloud Computing,” “Google’s GrandCentral Service Suffers Outage, Downtime.”

[317] Study by Infonetics Research

[318] Annual Ziff Davis Enterprise Editorial Research survey, 2008. The Strategy Group conducted a survey in July 2007 that included 173 respondents from Ziff Davis Enterprise database. These respondents were all manager-level or higher working in organizations with more than 100 employees.

[319] “Interview With A Convicted Hacker: Robert Moore Tells How He Broke Into Routers And Stole VoIP Services,” Sharon Gaudin, InformationWeek, September 26, 2007 (www.informationweek.com/news/internet/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=202101781).

[320] Information garnered from IBM’s 3,700 corporate clients, December 2008 (www.informationweek.com/news/security/management/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=212201984&cid=nl_IWK_daily_H).

[322] According to the Aladdin eSafe CSRT study in 2008.

[323] “Google Searches Web’s Dark Side,” BBC News, May 11, 2007 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6645895.stm).

[324] “Google Searches Web’s Dark Side,” BBC News, May 11, 2007 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6645895.stm).

[325] The indictment of Albert Gonzalez can be found at http://media.nbclocalmedia.com/documents/Indictment.pdf.

[326] Annual Ziff Davis Enterprise Editorial Research survey, 2008. The Strategy Group conducted a survey in July 2007 that included 173 respondents from Ziff Davis Enterprise database. These were all manager-level or higher working in organizations with more than 100 employees.

[327] Annual Ziff Davis Enterprise Editorial Research survey, 2008. The Strategy Group conducted a survey in July, 2007 that included 173 respondents from Ziff Davis Enterprise database. These were all manager-level or higher working in organizations with more than 100 employees.

[328] Infotech Research Group

[329] Annual Ziff Davis Enterprise Editorial Research survey, 2008. The Strategy Group conducted a survey in July, 2007 that included 173 respondents from Ziff Davis Enterprise database. These were all manager level or higher working in organizations with more than 100 employees.

[330] Annual Ziff Davis Enterprise Editorial Research survey, 2008. The Strategy Group conducted a survey in July, 2007 that included 173 respondents from Ziff Davis Enterprise database. These were all manager-level or higher working in organizations with more than 100 employees.

[331] Annual Ziff Davis Enterprise Editorial Research survey, 2008. The Strategy Group conducted a survey in July, 2007 that included 173 respondents from Ziff Davis Enterprise database. These were all manager-level or higher working in organizations with more than 100 employees.

[332] A Carnegie Mellon University CyLab survey of 703 individuals (primarily independent directors) serving on U.S.-listed public company boards corporate board directors, 2008.

[333] Survey by Arbor Networks of 66 self-classified Tier 1, Tier 2, and other IP network operators from North America, South America, Europe, and Asia, 2008.

[334] Courtesy of “Arbor Networks 2008 Worldwide Infrastructure Security Report”

[335] InfoTech Research Group

[337] US-Cert, Vulnerability Note VU#800113. There are several other existing vulnerabilities (CERT Advisory CA-1997-22 BIND, CERT Vulnerability Note VU#109475) that attackers can exploit to poison the cache.

[340] Study by Infonetics Research

[341] “Study: Routine Misbehavior by End Users Can Lead to Major Data Leaks,” Tim Wilson, Dark Reading, September 2008.

[343] “Twitter accounts of Obama, Britney Spears attacked,” CNN, January 6, 2009 (www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/01/05/twitter.hacked/index.html?iref=newssearch).

[344] Twitter cofounder Biz Stone wrote on the site’s blog at www.twitter.com.

[345] Davos World Economic Forum, Vint Cerf, January 2008.

[346] Survey by Arbor Networks of 66 self-classified Tier 1, Tier 2, and other IP network operators from North America, South America, Europe, and Asia, 2008.

[348] Survey by Arbor Networks of 66 self-classified Tier 1, Tier 2 and other IP network operators from North America, South America, Europe, and Asia, 2008.

[349] New York Times, October 20, 2008.

[351] “2009 Mobile/WiFi Phones and Subscribers biannual market size, share, and forecast service,” Infonetics Research, March 24, 2009.

[352] “Top 9 security predictions of 2009,” Derek Manky, ZDNet Asia, January 5, 2009 (www.zdnetasia.com/news/security/0,39044215,62049756,00.htm).

[353] “Two thirds of Britons victims of ‘mobile spam’ according to survey,” Cloudmark, April 22, 2008, (www.cloudmark.com/en/company/release.html?release=2008-04-22).

[354] Jonathan Zdziarski, author of iPhone SDK Application Development (O’Reilly, http://oreilly.com/catalog/9780596154059/).

[355] “The Network Security Industry is Thankful for...” Infonetics Research, December 23, 2008.

[356] “Google fixes Android root-access flaw,” David Meyer, ZDNet UK, November 11, 2008 (www.zdnetasia.com/news/security/0,39044215,62048148,00.htm).

[357] “Google fixes Android root-access flaw,” David Meyer, ZDNet UK, November 11, 2008 (www.zdnetasia.com/news/security/0,39044215,62048148,00.htm).

[358] Visiongain, 2008

[359] Network World, 2008

[360] Jonathan Zdziarski, iPhone SDK Application Development (O’Reilly, http://oreilly.com/catalog/9780596154059/).

[361] “Two thirds of Britons victims of ‘mobile spam’ according to survey,” Cloudmark, April 22, 2008, www.cloudmark.com/en/company/release.html?release=2008-04-22.

[362] “Security Appliances and Software for Mobile Networks and Devices,” Jeff Wilson, Infonetics Research, July 8, 2009.

[363] “Security Appliances and Software for Mobile Networks and Devices,” Jeff Wilson, Infonetics Research, July 8, 2009.

[364] Jonathan Zdziarski, iPhone SDK Application Development (O’Reilly, http://oreilly.com/catalog/9780596154059/).

[366] “E-Spionage: A BusinessWeek Investigation,” Brian Grow et al., BusinessWeek, April 21, 2008.

[368] “U.S. Steps Up Effort on Digital Defenses,” David E. Sanger et al., New York Times, April 28, 2009.

[369] Amit Yoran, chairman and CEO of NetWitness and former director of the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security, in a statement made in March 2009 before the House Subcommittee on Emerging Threats, Cybersecurity, Science and Technology, which is part of the House Committee on Homeland Security, as reported in “Cybersecurity Hearing Prompts Calls For Leadership, Laws,” Thomas Claburn, InformationWeek, March 11, 2009.

[370] Juniper Networks, COOP Government Action Survey, U.S. Government’s third quarter in 2007.

[371] Juniper Networks, COOP Government Action Survey, U.S. Government’s third quarter in 2007.

[372] “Public, private sectors at odds over cyber security,” Joseph Menn, Los Angeles Times, August 26, 2008.

[373] “Officials: N. Korea believed behind cyber attacks,” Hyung-Jin Kim, Associated Press, July 8, 2009 (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090708/ap_on_re_as/as_skorea_cyber_attack).

[374] “U.S. Steps Up Effort on Digital Defenses,” David E. Sanger et al., New York Times, April 28, 2009.

[375] Bill Woodcock, research director for Packet Clearing House, The New York Times Company, 2008.

[376] Pamela Hess, AP reporter, Washington Bureau

[377] “U.S. Steps Up Effort on Digital Defenses,” David E. Sanger et al., New York Times, April 28, 2009.

[378] “Drones Are Weapons of Choice to Fight Al Queda,” Christopher Drew, New York Times, March 16, 2009.

[383] “Online Donations Make Gains,” Nicole Wallace, The Chronicle of Philanthropy, June 12, 2003 (http://philanthropy.com/free/articles/v15/i17/17002001.htm).

[385] “The Cellphone, Navigating Our Lives,” John Markoff, New York Times, February 16, 2009 (www.nytimes.com/2009/02/17/science/17map.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1&src=linkedin).

[386] “Networked Families,” Pew Internet and American Life Project, October 19, 2008, 202-419-4500 (www.pewinternet.org).

[387] U.S.-based Pew Internet Project Study, 2007.

[388] “Obama: Broadband, Computers Part of Stimulus Package,” Grant Gross, IDG News Service, December 8, 2008.

[391] “Senate Mulls Stimulus Funds for Health IT,” Kenneth Corbin, InternetNews, January 15, 2009 (www.internetnews.com/government/article.php/3796636/Senate+Mulls+Stimulus+Funds+for+Health+IT.htm).

[392] Oprah.com, June 9, 2009

[396] “Fundraising, Via Twitter (With Cats!),” David Pogue, March 4, 2009 (http://pogue.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/04/fundraising-via-twitter-with-cats/?ref=personaltech).

[397] “Changing Face of Communications,” IBM, January 2009.

[398] Statistics collected by medialab for 2008 (www.scribd.com/doc/11481779/Social-Media-2008-Statistics).

[399] For a list of some of the Craigslist crimes, read “‘Craigslist Crimes’” Piling Up: Will Recent Horrifying Examples Spur Action?” Javier Lavagnino, June 8, 2009 (http://blogs.findlaw.com/blotter/2009/06/craigslist-crimes-piling-up-will-recent-horrifying-examples-spur-action.html).

[400] “Facebook gets $200 million investment from European firm,” Scott Duke Harris, Mercury News, May 26, 2009.

[401] According to Nielsen, as reported in “Chart of the day: Users Spent A Billion Hours on Facebook,” Nicholas Carlson and Kamelia Angelova, The Business Insider, Silicon Alley Insider, July 14, 2009 (www.facebook.com/ext/share.php?sid=101403592053&h=eXyIw&u=hdIo-&ref=nf).

[402] “How Facebook is Taking Over Our Lives,” Jessi Hempel, BusinessWeek, March 2, 2009.

[403] Reston, Virginia-based researcher ComScore, November 2008.

[404] “Number of US Facebook Users Over 35 Nearly Doubles in Last 60 Days,” March 25, 2009 as reported on “Inside Facebook: Tracking Facebook and the Facebook Platform for Developers and Marketers” (www.insidefacebook.com/2009/03/25/number-of-us-facebook-usersover-35-nearly-doubles-in-last-60-days/).

[405] Facebook addicts (11%) of the service make up approximately 62% of its traffic, with regulars (53%) accounting for approximately 34%. Quantcast, December 2008 (www.quantcast.com/facebook.com#demographics).

[406] ComScore Media Metrix data for March 2009

[407] ComScore Media Metrix data for April 2009

[411] “A Virtual Bank with Real Woes,” Rob Cox, New York Times, June 14, 2009.

[413] Greenhouse Gas Protocol Conversion Factors

[414] Information from International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Focus Group on ICT & Climate Change meeting held on November 24–28, 2008, which sets out to provide the standard definition of possible power types and modes of ICT/Telecom equipment, served as the base for these definitions.

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