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The Technological Entrepreneur’s Playbook by Ian Chaston

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CHAPTER 6

Competence

Contrasting Theories

Up until the 1980s, concepts associated with optimizing organizational performance were usually based on the premise that (a) marketing strategy formulation required developing ways of exploiting the opportunities available within the external environment and (b) marketing tactics are determined by the nature and structure of the industry of which the organization is a part. This emphasis on environmental orientation is exemplified by Porter’s (1980) “contending forces” model. Critics of environmentalism have expressed concern that excessive emphasis on the external market can be detrimental to organizational performance. This is because reliance on a purely market-orientated strategy without regard to ...

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