Most intoxications are related to substance-use disorders and are particularly common among the young. Intoxication may also be the result of the use or misuse of prescribed medications, drug-drug interactions (especially among the elderly), or suicidal or accidental drug overdose. The severity of the syndrome is generally dose-related, although, in some instances, its severity or specific symptoms may be idiosyncratic, associated with the individual's ability to metabolize a certain drug (Balis, 1982).


The following general principles, formulated by Czechowicz (1978), are still applicable to acute, severe intoxications seen in hospital emergency rooms. Treatment should be supervised ...

Get The Treatment Of Psychiatric Disorders, 3rd Edition now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.