This diagnostic class defines disorders with maladaptive behavioral changes associated with the pathologic use of psychoactive substances. They are divided into substance dependence and substance abuse. Other Axis I and Axis II mental disorders are often comorbid (dual diagnosis).

Substance dependence has been redefined by new criteria in the DSM-IV. The essential feature is a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms that constitute a dependence syndrome. Substance abuse is a residual category in which maladaptive patterns of psychoactive substance use have never met the criteria for dependence.

In addition to syndromes of intoxication, withdrawal, and dependence/abuse, substance ...

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