v
Contents
Acknowledgments, ix
Author Biography, xi
Introduction, xiii
Chapter 1 The Uncanny Valley 1
1.1 EXPERIENCE OF THE UNCANNY 2
1.2 BUKIMI NO TANITHE UNCANNY VALLEY 6
1.3 CRITICAL STUDIES OF THE UNCANNY VALLEY IN
GAMES AND ANIMATION 10
REFERENCES 21
Chapter 2 Previous Investigation into the Uncanny Valley 25
2.1 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR A CHARACTER’S
APPEARANCE 26
2.2 THE EFFECT OF MOVEMENT 28
2.3 PLOTTING THE UNCANNY VALLEY 31
2.4 LOST IN TRANSLATION? 35
2.5 THE EFFECT OF AGE AND GENDER ON SENSITIVITY
TO THE UNCANNY VALLEY 38
2.6 AN EVOLUTIONARY OR DEVELOPMENTAL
PHENOMENON? 41
REFERENCES 43
vi Contents
Chapter 3 Survival Horror Characters and the Uncanny 47
3.1 EARLY SOUND CINEMA 49
3.2 SURVIVAL HORROR VERSUS HORROR FILM 51
3.3 FACIAL EXPRESSION 54
3.4 SPEECH QUALITIES 55
3.5 ARTICULATION OF SPEECH 57
3.6 LIP- SYNCHRONIZATION 60
3.7 DESIGNING FOR OR AGAINST THE UNCANNY 65
REFERENCES 67
Chapter 4 Uncanny Facial Expression of Emotion 71
4.1 UNIVERSAL EMOTIONS 73
4.2 FACIAL ACTION CODING SYSTEM 74
4.3 NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION 76
4.4 FALSE OR FABRICATED EMOTION 79
4.5 THE EFFECT OF EMOTION TYPE ON UNCANNINESS 81
4.5.1 Uncanny Emotion: Fear and Surprise 83
4.5.2 Sadness and Anthropomorphism 86
4.5.3 Disgust, Revulsion and the Nose Wrinkler Action 87
4.5.4 Our Perceptual Advantage to Anger 89
4.5.5 Happiness and Uncanny False Smiles 90
REFERENCES 95
Chapter 5 Applying Psychological Plausibility
to the Uncanny Valley 99
5.1 PREVIOUS PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF
THE UNCANNY VALLEY 100
5.2 EMPATHY AND HUMANITY 102
5.3 PERCEPTION OF ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY TRAITS
IN AN UNCANNY CHARACTER 104
5.4 LACK OF VISUAL STARTLE REFLEX AND
PSYCHOPATHY 106
5.5 ABERRANT FACIAL EXPRESSION AND PERCEPTION
OF PSYCHOPATHY 108
Contents vii
5.6 THE EFFECT OF CHARACTER GENDER AND AGE ON
UNCANNINESS 111
5.7 ANTISOCIAL TRAITS IN ANTIPATHETIC CHARACTERS 117
REFERENCES 120
Chapter 6 The Mind’s Mirror and the Uncanny 125
6.1 MIRROR NEURON ACTIVITY 126
6.2 FACIAL MIMICRY AND EMOTIONAL CONTAGION 129
6.3 A LACK OF FACIAL MIMICRY IN HUMANS 133
6.4 FACIAL MIMICRY IN RELATIONAL HUMAN- LIKE
CHARACTERS 136
6.5 THE UNCANNY IN HUMANS 141
REFERENCES 144
Chapter 7 Attachment Theory and Threat to Self-
Concept (Ego) 149
7.1 REFLECTION OF THE SELF 150
7.2 SELF, IDENTITY AND ATTACHMENT THEORY 152
7.3 PROTEST, DESPAIR AND DETACHMENT BEHAVIOR 155
7.4 THREAT TO SELF- CONCEPT (EGO) 161
7.5 OBJECTIVE QUANTIFICATION OF UNCANNINESS
AND FUTURE WORK 164
7.6 DO WE ALL EXPERIENCE THE UNCANNY IN
HUMAN- LIKE CHARACTERS? 167
REFERENCES 171
Chapter 8 Will We Ever Overcome the Uncanny Valley? 177
8.1 OVERCOMING THE UNCANNY: A QUESTION OF
TIME? 178
8.2 THE UNCANNY WALL 182
8.3 THE HUMAN AND FINANCIAL COST OF UNCANNY
HUMAN- LIKE CHARACTERS 190
8.4 THE FUTURE: A HUMAN- LIKE VIRTUAL NEWBORN 194
REFERENCES 201

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