Chapter 4 described varioustechniques you can use to map a target application and gain an initial understanding of how it works. That methodology involved interacting with the application in largely benign ways to catalog its content and functionality, determine the technologiesin use, and identify the key attack surface.
This chapter describes ways in which you can extract further information froman application during an actual attack. This mainly involves interacting with the application in unexpected and malicious ways and exploiting anomalies in the application'sbehavior to extract information that is of value to you. If successful, such an attack may enable you to retrieve sensitivedata such as user credentials, gain a deeper understanding of an error conditionto fine‐tune your attack, discover more details about the technologies in use, andmap the application's internal structure and functionality.