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The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Training, Development, and Performance Improvement by Sigmar Malvezzi, Nuno Rebelo dos Santos, Jonathan Passmore, Kurt Kraiger

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12Game- and Simulation-Based Approaches to Training

Rebecca Grossman, Kyle Heyne, and Eduardo Salas

Introduction

Increasingly, simulation-based training (SBT) is being recognized as a highly effective approach to training, particularly when targeting complex knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) (e.g., Salas, Wildman, & Piccolo, 2009; Grossman, Spencer, & Salas, 2013). Because it enables trainees to obtain experience enacting target KSAs within a safe environment that mirrors the characteristics of the real environment it serves as a unique mechanism for facilitating learning, administering feedback, and promoting the transfer of training (Salas et al., 2012). Though it is often associated with advanced technology and highly immersive equipment, SBT can come in a variety of forms. Indeed, organizations may shy away from SBT due to the potential costs involved, or in contrast, may overuse it, assuming that the use of cutting edge technology will guarantee effectiveness – in both cases, they would be selling themselves short. Simulations can vary in their degree and type of fidelity, each characteristic proving more or less effective in different contexts. Additionally, the use of simulation alone, regardless of its fidelity, does not guarantee that training will be effective (Oser, et al., 1999b). To work, the design and implementation of SBT must be grounded in the science of training such that it uses systematic procedures and incorporates specific instructional features. ...

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