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The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Training, Development, and Performance Improvement by Sigmar Malvezzi, Nuno Rebelo dos Santos, Jonathan Passmore, Kurt Kraiger

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13Training and Personal Development

Kurt Kraiger and Thomas M. Cavanagh

Introduction

Training and development refer to systematic processes, managed by organizations, that results in a relatively permanent change in the knowledge, skills, or attitudes of its members. In this chapter, we summarize recent evidence of the strategic importance and effectiveness of training, and then identify both established and emerging best practices in training. Eight separate meta-analyses are reviewed. These support the contention that well-designed training works. In terms of established best practices, the classic instructional systems design model still drives needs assessment and training evaluation, although new models emphasize the role of strategic decision-making, promoting transfer, and consideration of special populations. The chapter notes that best practices in maximizing learning outcomes include the promotion of active learning through training techniques that encourage errors, prompting self-regulation, and technology-delivered instruction.

Training as an Investment

The shift towards a global economy made up of lean and efficient organizations has emphasized the central importance of training and development. Both continuous learning and ongoing skill development have become a way of life in organizations of today. Training and development activities allow organizations to be more competitive, to be more efficient and productive, and to adapt and be more innovative. Thus, ...

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