8   Order in phrase structure and movement

with Mamoru Saito

1   Introduction

In this article we aim to develop the theory of phrase structure and movement, focusing in particular on parametric differences between English and Japanese. We adopt and argue for Chomsky's (1994) proposal to eliminate X′ theory. At the same time, we maintain that the head parameter, or more precisely a modified version of it, plays a crucial role in syntax. We propose that the traditional “adjunction” operations – that is, scrambling and Heavy NP Shift – should be considered to be substitution in the sense that their landing site is completely within a projection of the target. We argue further that classical cases of “substitution” including NP-movement and wh

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