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Theory and Practice of Aircraft Performance

Book Description

Textbook introducing the fundamentals of aircraft performance using industry standards and examples: bridging the gap between academia and industry

  • Provides an extensive and detailed treatment of all segments of mission profile and overall aircraft performance
  • Considers operating costs, safety, environmental and related systems issues
  • Includes worked examples relating to current aircraft (Learjet 45, Tucano Turboprop Trainer, Advanced Jet Trainer and Airbus A320 types of aircraft)
  • Suitable as a textbook for aircraft performance courses

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Preface
  4. Series Preface
  5. Road Map of the Book
    1. Organization
    2. Suggested Structure for the Coursework
  6. Acknowledgements
    1. By A.K. Kundu
    2. By Mark Price
    3. By David Riordan
  7. Nomenclature
  8. CHAPTER 1: Introduction
    1. 1.1 Overview
    2. 1.2 Brief Historical Background
    3. 1.3 Current Aircraft Design Status
    4. 1.4 Future Trends
    5. 1.5 Airworthiness Requirements
    6. 1.6 Current Aircraft Performance Analyses Levels
    7. 1.7 Market Survey
    8. 1.8 Typical Design Process
    9. 1.9 Classroom Learning Process
    10. 1.10 Cost Implications
    11. 1.11 Units and Dimensions
    12. 1.12 Use of Semi‐empirical Relations and Graphs
    13. 1.13 How Do Aircraft Fly?
    14. 1.14 Anatomy of Aircraft
    15. 1.15 Aircraft Motion and Forces
    16. References
  9. CHAPTER 2: Aerodynamic and Aircraft Design Considerations
    1. 2.1 Overview
    2. 2.2 Introduction
    3. 2.3 Atmosphere
    4. 2.4 Airflow Behaviour: Laminar and Turbulent
    5. 2.5 Aerofoil
    6. 2.6 Generation of Lift
    7. 2.7 Types of Stall
    8. 2.8 Comparison of Three NACA Aerofoils
    9. 2.9 High‐Lift Devices
    10. 2.10 Transonic Effects – Area Rule
    11. 2.11 Wing Aerodynamics
    12. 2.12 Aspect Ratio Correction of 2D‐Aerofoil Characteristics for 3D‐Finite Wing
    13. 2.13 Wing Definitions
    14. 2.14 Mean Aerodynamic Chord
    15. 2.15 Compressibility Effect: Wing Sweep
    16. 2.16 Wing‐Stall Pattern and Wing Twist
    17. 2.17 Influence of Wing Area and Span on Aerodynamics
    18. 2.18 Empennage
    19. 2.19 Fuselage
    20. 2.20 Nacelle and Intake
    21. 2.21 Speed Brakes and Dive Brakes
    22. References
  10. CHAPTER 3: Air Data Measuring Instruments, Systems and Parameters
    1. 3.1 Overview
    2. 3.2 Introduction
    3. 3.3 Aircraft Speed
    4. 3.4 Air Data Instruments
    5. 3.5 Aircraft Flight‐Deck (Cockpit) Layout
    6. 3.6 Aircraft Mass (Weights) and Centre of Gravity
    7. 3.7 Noise Emissions
    8. 3.8 Engine‐Exhaust Emissions
    9. 3.9 Aircraft Systems
    10. 3.10 Low Observable (LO) Aircraft Configuration
    11. References
  11. CHAPTER 4: Equations of Motion for a Flat Stationary Earth
    1. 4.1 Overview
    2. 4.2 Introduction
    3. 4.3 Definitions of Frames of Reference (Flat Stationary E arth) and Nomenclature Used
    4. 4.4 Eulerian Angles
    5. 4.5 Simplified Equations of Motion for a Flat Stationary Earth
    6. Reference
  12. CHAPTER 5: Aircraft Load
    1. 5.1 Overview
    2. 5.2 Introduction
    3. 5.3 Flight Manoeuvres
    4. 5.4 Aircraft Loads
    5. 5.5 Theory and Definitions
    6. 5.6 Limits – Loads and Speeds
    7. 5.7 V‐nDiagram
    8. 5.8 Gust Envelope
    9. Reference
  13. CHAPTER 6: Stability Considerations Affecting Aircraft Performance
    1. 6.1 Overview
    2. 6.2 Introduction
    3. 6.3 Static and Dynamic Stability
    4. 6.4 Theory
    5. 6.5 Current Statistical Trends for Horizontal and Vertical Tail Coefficients
    6. 6.6 Inherent Aircraft Motions as Characteristics of Design
    7. 6.7 Spinning
    8. 6.8 Summary of Design Considerations for Stability
    9. References
  14. CHAPTER 7: Aircraft Power Plant and Integration
    1. 7.1 Overview
    2. 7.2 Background
    3. 7.3 Definitions
    4. 7.4 Air‐Breathing Aircraft Engine Types
    5. 7.5 Simplified Representation of Gas Turbine (Brayton/Joule) Cycle
    6. 7.6 Formulation/Theory – Isentropic Case
    7. 7.7 Engine Integration to Aircraft – Installation Effects
    8. 7.8 Intake/Nozzle Design
    9. 7.9 Exhaust Nozzle and Thrust Reverser
    10. 7.10 Propeller
    11. References
  15. CHAPTER 8: Aircraft Power Plant Performance
    1. 8.1 Overview
    2. 8.2 Introduction
    3. 8.3 Uninstalled Turbofan Engine Performance Data – Civil Aircraft
    4. 8.4 Uninstalled Turbofan Engine Performance Data – Military Aircraft
    5. 8.5 Uninstalled Turboprop Engine Performance Data
    6. 8.6 Installed Engine Performance Data of Matched Engines to Coursework Aircraft
    7. 8.7 Installed Turboprop Performance Data
    8. 8.8 Piston Engine
    9. 8.9 Engine Performance Grid
    10. 8.10 Some Turbofan Data
    11. Reference
  16. CHAPTER 9: Aircraft Drag
    1. 9.1 Overview
    2. 9.2 Introduction
    3. 9.3 Parasite Drag Definition
    4. 9.4 Aircraft Drag Breakdown (Subsonic)
    5. 9.5 Aircraft Drag Formulation
    6. 9.6 Aircraft Drag Estimation Methodology
    7. 9.7 Minimum Parasite Drag Estimation Methodology
    8. 9.8 Semi‐Empirical Relations to Estimate Aircraft Component Parasite Drag
    9. 9.9 Notes on Excrescence Drag Resulting from Surface Imperfections
    10. 9.10 Minimum Parasite Drag
    11. 9.11 ΔCDp Estimation
    12. 9.12 Subsonic Wave Drag
    13. 9.13 Total Aircraft Drag
    14. 9.14 Low‐Speed Aircraft Drag at Takeoff and Landing
    15. 9.15 Propeller‐Driven Aircraft Drag
    16. 9.16 Military Aircraft Drag
    17. 9.17 Supersonic Drag
    18. 9.18 Coursework Example – Civil Bizjet Aircraft
    19. 9.19 Classroom Example – Subsonic Military Aircraft (Advanced Jet Trainer)
    20. 9.20 Classroom Example – Turboprop Trainer
    21. 9.21 Classroom Example – Supersonic Military Aircraft
    22. 9.22 Drag Comparison
    23. 9.23 Some Concluding Remarks and Reference Figures
    24. References
  17. CHAPTER 10: Fundamentals of Mission Profile, Drag Polar and Aeroplane Grid
    1. 10.1 Overview
    2. 10.2 Introduction
    3. 10.3 Civil Aircraft Mission (Payload–Range)
    4. 10.4 Military Aircraft Mission
    5. 10.5 Aircraft Flight Envelope
    6. 10.6 Understanding Drag Polar
    7. 10.7 Properties of Parabolic Drag Polar
    8. 10.8 Classwork Examples of Parabolic Drag Polar
    9. 10.9 Bizjet Actual Drag Polar
    10. 10.10 Aircraft and Engine Grid
    11. References
  18. CHAPTER 11: Takeoff and Landing
    1. 11.1 Overview
    2. 11.2 Introduction
    3. 11.3 Airfield Definitions
    4. 11.4 Generalized Takeoff Equations of Motion
    5. 11.5 Friction – Wheel Rolling and Braking Friction Coefficients
    6. 11.6 Civil Transport Aircraft Takeoff
    7. 11.7 Worked Example – Bizjet
    8. 11.8 Takeoff Presentation
    9. 11.9 Military Aircraft Takeoff
    10. 11.10 Checking Takeoff Field Length (AJT)
    11. 11.11 Civil Transport Aircraft Landing
    12. 11.12 Landing Presentation
    13. 11.13 Approach Climb and Landing Climb
    14. 11.14 Fuel Jettisoning
    15. References
  19. CHAPTER 12: Climb and Descent Performance
    1. 12.1 Overview
    2. 12.2 Introduction
    3. 12.3 Climb Performance
    4. 12.4 Other Ways to Climb (Point Performance) – Civil Aircraft
    5. 12.5 Classwork Example – Climb Performance (Bizjet)
    6. 12.6 Hodograph Plot
    7. 12.7 Worked Example – Bizjet
    8. 12.8 Integrated Climb Performance – Computational Methodology
    9. 12.9 Specific Excess Power (SEP) – High‐Energy Climb
    10. 12.10 Descent Performance
    11. 12.11 Worked Example – Descent Performance (Bizjet)
    12. References
  20. CHAPTER 13: Cruise Performance and Endurance
    1. 13.1 Overview
    2. 13.2 Introduction
    3. 13.3 Equations of Motion for the Cruise Segment
    4. 13.4 Cruise Equations
    5. 13.5 Specific Range
    6. 13.6 Worked Example (Bizjet)
    7. 13.7 Endurance Equations
    8. 13.8 Options for Cruise Segment (Turbofan Only)
    9. 13.9 Initial Maximum Cruise Speed (Bizjet)
    10. 13.10 Worked Example of AJT – Military Aircraft
    11. References
  21. CHAPTER 14: Aircraft Mission Profile
    1. 14.1 Overview
    2. 14.2 Introduction
    3. 14.3 Payload‐Range Capability
    4. 14.4 The Bizjet Payload‐Range Capability
    5. 14.5 Endurance (Bizjet)
    6. 14.6 Effect of Wind on Aircraft Mission Performance
    7. 14.7 Engine Inoperative Situation at Climb and Cruise – Drift‐Down Procedure
    8. 14.8 Military Missions
    9. 14.9 Flight Planning by the Operators
    10. References
  22. CHAPTER 15: Manoeuvre Performance
    1. 15.1 Overview
    2. 15.2 Introduction
    3. 15.3 Aircraft Turn
    4. 15.4 Classwork Example – AJT
    5. 15.5 Aerobatics Manoeuvre
    6. 15.6 Combat Manoeuvre
    7. 15.7 Discussion on Turn
    8. References
  23. CHAPTER 16: Aircraft Sizing and Engine Matching
    1. 16.1 Overview
    2. 16.2 Introduction
    3. 16.3 Theory
    4. 16.4 Coursework Exercises: Civil Aircraft Design (Bizjet)
    5. 16.5 Sizing Analysis: Civil Aircraft (Bizjet)
    6. 16.6 Classroom Exercise – Military Aircraft (AJT)
    7. 16.7 Sizing Analysis – Military Aircraft
    8. 16.8 Aircraft Sizing Studies and Sensitivity Analyses
    9. 16.9 Discussion
    10. References
  24. CHAPTER 17: Operating Costs
    1. 17.1 Overview
    2. 17.2 Introduction
    3. 17.3 Aircraft Cost and Operational Cost
    4. 17.4 Aircraft Direct Operating Cost (DOC)
    5. 17.5 Aircraft Performance Management (APM)
    6. References
  25. CHAPTER 18: Miscellaneous Considerations
    1. 18.1 Overview
    2. 18.2 Introduction
    3. 18.3 History of the FAA
    4. 18.4 Flight Test
    5. 18.5 Contribution of the Ground Effect on Takeoff
    6. 18.6 Flying in Adverse Environments
    7. 18.7 Bird Strikes
    8. 18.8 Military Aircraft Flying Hazards and Survivability
    9. 18.9 Relevant Civil Aircraft Statistics
    10. 18.10 Extended Twin‐Engine Operation (ETOP)
    11. 18.11 Flight and Human Physiology
    12. References
  26. APPENDIX A: Conversions
  27. APPENDIX B: International Standard Atmosphere Table
  28. APPENDIX C: Fundamental Equations
    1. C.1 Kinetics
    2. C.2 Thermodynamics
    3. C.3 Aerodynamics
  29. APPENDIX D: Airbus 320 Class Case Study
    1. D.1 Dimensions
    2. D.2 Drag Computation
  30. APPENDIX E: Problem Sets
    1. E.1 The Belfast (B100)
    2. E.2 The AK4
    3. E.3 Problem Assignments
    4. Problem
  31. APPENDIX F: Aerofoil Data
  32. Index
  33. End User License Agreement