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Thermodynamic Degradation Science

Book Description

Thermodynamic degradation science is a new and exciting discipline. This book merges the science of physics of failure with thermodynamics and shows how degradation modeling is improved and enhanced when using thermodynamic principles.

The author also goes beyond the traditional physics of failure methods and highlights the importance of having new tools such as “Mesoscopic” noise degradation measurements for prognostics of complex systems, and a conjugate work approach to solving physics of failure problems with accelerated testing applications.

Key features:

• Demonstrates how the thermodynamics energy approach uncovers key degradation models and their application to accelerated testing.

• Demonstrates how thermodynamic degradation models accounts for cumulative stress environments, effect statistical reliability distributions, and are key for reliability test planning.

• Provides coverage of the four types of Physics of Failure processes describing aging: Thermal Activation Processes, Forced Aging, Diffusion, and complex combinations of these.

• Coverage of numerous key topics including: aging laws; Cumulative Accelerated Stress Test (CAST) Plans; cumulative entropy fatigue damage; reliability statistics and environmental degradation and pollution.

Thermodynamic Degradation Science: Physics of Failure, Accelerated Testing, Fatigue and Reliability Applications is essential reading for reliability, cumulative fatigue, and physics of failure engineers as well as students on courses which include thermodynamic engineering and/or physics of failure coverage.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. List of Figures
  4. List of Tables
  5. About the Author
  6. Preface
  7. 1 Equilibrium Thermodynamic Degradation Science
    1. 1.1 Introduction to a New Science
    2. 1.2 Categorizing Physics of Failure Mechanisms
    3. 1.3 Entropy Damage Concept
    4. 1.4 Thermodynamic Work
    5. 1.5 Thermodynamic State Variables and their Characteristics
    6. 1.6 Thermodynamic Second Law in Terms of System Entropy Damage
    7. 1.7 Work, Resistance, Generated Entropy, and the Second Law
    8. 1.8 Thermodynamic Catastrophic and Parametric Failure
    9. 1.9 Repair Entropy
    10. References
  8. 2 Applications of Equilibrium Thermodynamic Degradation to Complex and Simple Systems: Entropy Damage, Vibration, Temperature, Noise Analysis, and Thermodynamic Potentials
    1. 2.1 Cumulative Entropy Damage Approach in Physics of Failure
    2. 2.2 Measuring Entropy Damage Processes
    3. 2.3 Intermediate Thermodynamic Aging States and Sampling
    4. 2.4 Measures for System-Level Entropy Damage
    5. 2.5 Measuring Randomness due to System Entropy Damage with Mesoscopic Noise Analysis in an Operating System
    6. 2.6 How System Entropy Damage Leads to Random Processes
    7. 2.7 Example 2.8: Human Heart Rate Noise Degradation
    8. 2.8 Entropy Damage Noise Assessment Using Autocorrelation and the Power Spectral Density
    9. 2.9 Noise Detection Measurement System
    10. 2.10 Entropy Maximize Principle: Combined First and Second Law
    11. 2.11 Thermodynamic Potentials and Energy States
    12. References
  9. 3 NE Thermodynamic Degradation Science Assessment Using the Work Concept
    1. 3.1 Equilibrium versus Non-Equilibrium Aging Approach
    2. 3.2 Application to Cyclic Work and Cumulative Damage
    3. 3.3 Cyclic Work Process, Heat Engines, and the Carnot Cycle
    4. 3.4 Example 3.1: Cyclic Engine Damage Quantified Using Efficiency
    5. 3.5 The Thermodynamic Damage Ratio Method for Tracking Degradation
    6. 3.6 Acceleration Factors from the Damage Ratio Principle
    7. References
  10. 4 Applications of NE Thermodynamic Degradation Science to Mechanical Systems
    1. 4.1 Thermodynamic Work Approach to Physics of Failure Problems
    2. 4.2 Example 4.1: Miner’s Rule
    3. 4.3 Assessing Thermodynamic Damage in Mechanical Systems
    4. 4.4 Cumulative Damage Accelerated Stress Test Goal: Environmental Profiling and Cumulative Accelerated Stress Test (CAST) Equations
    5. 4.5 Fatigue Damage Spectrum Analysis for Vibration Accelerated Testing
    6. References
  11. 5 Corrosion Applications in NE Thermodynamic Degradation
    1. 5.1 Corrosion Damage in Electrochemistry
    2. 5.2 Example 5.2: Chemical Corrosion Processes
    3. 5.3 Corrosion Current in Primary Batteries
    4. 5.4 Corrosion Rate in Microelectronics
    5. References
  12. 6 Thermal Activation Free Energy Approach
    1. 6.1 Free Energy Roller Coaster
    2. 6.2 Thermally Activated Time-Dependent (TAT) Degradation Model
    3. 6.3 Free Energy Use in Parametric Degradation and the Partition Function
    4. 6.4 Parametric Aging at End of Life Due to the Arrhenius Mechanism: Large Parametric Change
    5. References
  13. 7 TAT Model Applications: Wear, Creep, and Transistor Aging
    1. 7.1 Solving Physics of Failure Problems with the TAT Model
    2. 7.2 Example 7.1: Activation Wear
    3. 7.3 Example 7.2: Activation Creep Model
    4. 7.4 Transistor Aging
    5. References
  14. 8 Diffusion
    1. 8.1 The Diffusion Process
    2. 8.2 Example 8.1: Describing Diffusion Using Equilibrium Thermodynamics
    3. 8.3 Describing Diffusion Using Probability
    4. 8.4 Diffusion Acceleration Factor with and without Temperature Dependence
    5. 8.5 Diffusion Entropy Damage
    6. 8.6 General Form of the Diffusion Equation
    7. Reference
  15. 9 How Aging Laws Influence Parametric and Catastrophic Reliability Distributions
    1. 9.1 Physics of Failure Influence on Reliability Distributions
    2. 9.2 Log Time Aging (or Power Aging Laws) and the Lognormal Distribution
    3. 9.3 Aging Power Laws and the Weibull Distribution: Influence on Beta
    4. 9.4 Stress and Life Distributions
    5. 9.5 Time- (or Stress-) Dependent Standard Deviation
    6. References
  16. 10 The Theory of Organization
  17. Special Topics A
    1. A.1 Introduction
    2. A.2 The Key Reliability Functions
    3. A.3 More Information on the Failure Rate
    4. A.4 The Bathtub Curve and Reliability Distributions
    5. A.5 Confidence Interval for Normal Parametric Analysis
    6. A.6 Central Limit Theorem and Cpk Analysis
    7. A.7 Catastrophic Analysis
    8. A.8 Reliability Objectives and Confidence Testing
    9. A.9 Comprehensive Accelerated Test Planning
    10. References
  18. Special Topics B
    1. B.1 Introduction
    2. B.2 Power Law Acceleration Factors
    3. B.3 Temperature–Humidity Life Test Model
    4. B.4 Temperature Cycle Testing
    5. B.5 Vibration Acceleration
    6. B.6 Multiple-Stress Accelerated Test Plans for Demonstrating Reliability
    7. B.7 Cumulative Accelerated Stress Test (CAST) Goals and Equations Usage in Environmental Profiling
    8. References
  19. Special Topics C
    1. C.1 Spontaneous Negative Entropy: Growth and Repair
    2. C.2 The Perfect Human Engine: How to Live Longer
    3. C.3 Growth and Self-Repair Part of the Human Engine
    4. C.4 Act of Spontaneous Negative Entropy
    5. References
  20. Overview of New Terms, Equations, and Concepts
    1. Key Words
    2. New Terms, Equations, and Concepts
    3. Please Do Cite the Author
  21. Index
  22. End User License Agreement