Chapter 8


  • To define and explain available and unavailable energy
  • To understand the importance of thermodynamic potential functions
  • To be able to distinguish between useful work and maximum work
  • To distinguish between availability and available energy
  • To evaluate closed and open systems in terms of availability
  • To evaluate irreversibility and second law efficiency of processes and cycles

8.1 Introduction

In the preceding chapters all the laws of thermodynamics have been studied and their implications analysed. In the material that follows, we will take up the application of these laws to interactions between systems and surroundings, to find answers to such questions as, what is the maximum work obtainable? ...

Get Thermodynamics now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.