In the 1950s, architectural theory in Europe and America was a makeshift affair, a mixture of old ideas about composition surviving from the time when architecture students were expected to know about the classical orders, newer ideas about form and function derived from the modernist manifestos of the 1910s and 1920s, and a body of research aimed at making the process of design more rational and scientific. The discipline was intellectually rather unambitious.1 Theory stuck close to practice, which seemed the only way to justify its existence. By the mid-1960s those modernist ideas had become an orthodoxy and were already beginning to seem a little stale. Teachers and writers on the fringe of the profession began to ask if architecture ...

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