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CHAPTER FOUR

VISUAL STRUCTURES

Objects, images, and texts are given structure, and hence meaning, through the way in which they are visually composed. This is the case whether we are talking about individual things such as the design of products, furniture, and industrial machinery (objects); the organization of paintings, drawings, photographs, diagrams, doodles, cartoons, posters, graphic images, and emblems (images); or layouts in newspapers, novels, books of poetry, film scripts, and textbooks (texts). It also applies to collections of things (e.g., boxes of coins, scrapbooks full of photographs, and collected works of certain authors) and things that are in sequence (e.g., ornaments in a series, successions of images in films, and runs ...

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