access controls

The restrictions on a user's ability to access an object. You can implement access controls on operating systems, hardware, software, operating procedures, or any combination of the four.


The cost-based process of analyzing resource utilization.

Active Directory

A system that provides a centralized information store for Windows 2000–based networks.

administrative law

The rules governing particular agencies, organizations, or occupational fields.


A privileged account that is present by default in Microsoft Windows operating systems.

Application layer

The top layer of the OSI model. Application layer protocols are responsible for transferring data for network applications, such as Mail, News, and Web ...

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