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Tissue Engineering, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Tissue Engineering is a comprehensive introduction to the engineering and biological aspects of this critical subject. With contributions from internationally renowned authors, it provides a broad perspective on tissue engineering for students coming to the subject for the first time. In addition to the key topics covered in the previous edition, this update also includes new material on the regulatory authorities, commercial considerations as well as new chapters on microfabrication, materiomics and cell/biomaterial interface.

  • Effectively reviews major foundational topics in tissue engineering in a clear and accessible fashion
  • Includes state of the art experiments presented in break-out boxes, chapter objectives, chapter summaries, and multiple choice questions to aid learning
  • New edition contains material on regulatory authorities and commercial considerations in tissue engineering

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1. Tissue Engineering: An Introduction
  8. Chapter 2. Stem Cells
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 2.1. Introduction
    3. 2.2. Differentiation
    4. 2.3. Characterization of Stem Cells: Surface Protein Expression
    5. 2.4. Characterization of Stem Cells: Gene Expression
    6. 2.5. Metastable States of Stem Cells
    7. 2.6. Pluripotent Stem Cells
    8. 2.7. Multipotent Stem Cells
    9. 2.8. Stem Cells in Skin Epithelia
    10. 2.9. Stem Cells in the Intestine
    11. 2.10. Stem Cells in the Central Nervous System
    12. 2.11. Future Perspectives
    13. 2.12. Summary
  9. Chapter 3. Tissue Formation during Embryogenesis
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 3.1. Introduction
    3. 3.2. Cardiac Development
    4. 3.3. Blood Vessel Development
    5. 3.4. Development of Peripheral Nerve Tissue
    6. 3.5. Embryonic Skin Development
    7. 3.6. Skeletal Formation
    8. 3.7. Future Directions
    9. 3.8. Summary
  10. Chapter 4. Cellular Signaling
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 4.1. General Introduction
    3. 4.2. Cellular Signaling in Skin Biology
    4. 4.3. Cellular Signaling in Vascular Biology
    5. 4.4. Cellular Signaling in Bone Biology
    6. 4.5. Cellular Signaling in Skeletal Muscle
    7. 4.6. Future Developments
    8. 4.7. Snapshot Summary
  11. Chapter 5. Extracellular Matrix as a Bioscaffold for Tissue Engineering
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 5.1. Introduction
    3. 5.2. Native Extracellular Matrix
    4. 5.3. ECM Scaffold Preparation
    5. 5.4. Constructive Tissue Remodeling
    6. 5.5. Clinical Translation of ECM Bioscaffolds
    7. 5.6. Commercially Available Scaffolds Composed of ECM
    8. 5.7. Future Considerations
    9. 5.8. Summary
  12. Chapter 6. Degradation of Biomaterials
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 6.1. Degradable Bioceramics
    3. 6.2. Biodegradable Polymers
    4. 6.3. Future Perspectives for Degradable Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering
    5. 6.4. Summary
  13. Chapter 7. Cell–Material Interactions
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 7.1. Introduction
    3. 7.2. Surface Chemistry
    4. 7.3. Surface Topography
    5. 7.4. Material Mechanics (Stiffness)
    6. 7.5. Summary
  14. Chapter 8. Materiomics: A Toolkit for Developing New Biomaterials
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 8.1. Introduction: What is Materiomics?
    3. 8.2. Why Do We Need New Biomaterials
    4. 8.3. The Size of Chemical Space
    5. 8.4. Design of Experiments/Genetic Evolution/Parallels to Drug Discovery
    6. 8.5. High-Throughput Experimental Methods
    7. 8.6. Computational Modeling
    8. 8.7. Future Perspective
    9. 8.8. Summary
  15. Chapter 9. Microfabrication Technology in Tissue Engineering
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 9.1. Introduction
    3. 9.2. Microfabrication Techniques in Tissue Engineering
    4. 9.3. Conclusion and Future Perspective
    5. 9.4. Summary
  16. Chapter 10. Scaffold Design and Fabrication
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 10.1. Introduction
    3. 10.2. Scaffold Design
    4. 10.3. Classical Scaffold Fabrication Techniques
    5. 10.4. Electrospinning
    6. 10.5. Additive Manufacturing
    7. 10.6. Conclusion and Future Directions
  17. Chapter 11. Controlled Release Strategies in Tissue Engineering
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 11.1. Introduction
    3. 11.2. Bioactive Factors Admixed with Matrices
    4. 11.3. Bioactive Factors Entrapped within Gel Matrices
    5. 11.4. Bioactive Factors Entrapped within Hydrophobic Scaffolds or Microparticles
    6. 11.5. Bioactive Factors Bound to Affinity Sites within Matrices
    7. 11.6. Bioactive Factors Covalently Bound to Matrices
    8. 11.7. Matrices Used for Immunomodulation
    9. 11.8. Summary
  18. Chapter 12. Bioreactors: Enabling Technologies for Research and Manufacturing
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 12.1. Introduction
    3. 12.2. Enabling Tools for Tissue Engineers
    4. 12.3. Bioreactor-Based In vitro Model Systems
    5. 12.4. Bioreactors as Tissue Manufacturing Devices
    6. 12.5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
    7. 12.6. Snapshot Summary
  19. Chapter 13. Clinical Grade Production of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 13.1. Introduction
    3. 13.2. Isolation of BM-MSCs
    4. 13.3. Culture Expansion
    5. 13.4. Characterization of Culture-Expanded MSCs
    6. 13.5. Cryopresentation
    7. 13.6. Production of Clinical Grade MSCs
    8. 13.7. Donor Variability and Donor-Related Parameters Affecting In Vitro Properties and Expansion Ability of MSCs
    9. 13.8. Relationship between In Vitro Assayed MSC Properties and Their Possible In Vivo Function
    10. 13.9. Future Perspectives
    11. 13.10. Snapshot Summary
  20. Chapter 14. Vascularization, Survival, and Functionality of Tissue-Engineered Constructs
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 14.1. Introduction
    3. 14.2. Strategies to Improve Vascular Ingrowth into Tissue-Engineered Constructs
    4. 14.3. Prevascularization Strategies
    5. 14.4. Strategies to Improve Cell Survival
    6. 14.5. In vivo Models
    7. 14.6. Conclusion/Outlook
    8. 14.7. Summary
  21. Chapter 15. Skin Engineering and Keratinocyte Stem Cell Therapy
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 15.1. Introduction
    3. 15.2. Structure of the Epidermis
    4. 15.3. Keratins
    5. 15.4. Structure of the Dermoepidermal Junction
    6. 15.5. In Vitro Keratinocyte Culture
    7. 15.6. Immunogenicity and Cultured Keratinocytes
    8. 15.7. Development of In Vivo Somatic Keratinocyte Stem Cell Grafting
    9. 15.8. Poor Keratinocyte “Take”
    10. 15.9. Enhanced Dermal Grafting
    11. 15.10. The Use of Adult Stem Cells in Tissue-Engineered Skin
    12. 15.11. The Future of Tissue-Engineered Skin
    13. 15.12. Summary
  22. Chapter 16. Cartilage and Bone Regeneration
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 16.1. Introduction: Cartilage
    3. 16.2. Cellular Structures and Matrix Composition of Hyaline Cartilage
    4. 16.3. Collagen
    5. 16.4. Proteoglycans
    6. 16.5. The Chondrocyte
    7. 16.6. Stem Cells in Cartilage and Proliferation of Chondrocytes
    8. 16.7. Pathophysiology of Cartilage Lesion Development
    9. 16.8. Artificial Induction of Cartilage Repair
    10. 16.9. Rationale for Cell Implantation
    11. 16.10. Cartilage Specimens for Implantation
    12. 16.11. Cell Seeding Density
    13. 16.12. What Type of Chondrogenic Cells are Ideal for Cartilage Engineering?
    14. 16.13. Allogeneic versus Autologous Cells
    15. 16.14. Articular Chondrocytes versus Other Cells
    16. 16.15. Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
    17. 16.16. Xenograft Cells
    18. 16.17. Direct Isolation of Tissue
    19. 16.18. Scaffolds in Cartilage Tissue Engineering
    20. 16.19. Bioreactors in Cartilage Tissue Engineering
    21. 16.20. Growth Factors that Stimulate Chondrogenesis
    22. 16.21. Future Developments in Cartilage Biology
    23. 16.22. Introduction: Bone—Basic Bone Biology: Structure, Function, and Cells
    24. 16.23. Bone Composition
    25. 16.24. Bone Formation
    26. 16.25. Intramembranous Ossification
    27. 16.26. Endochondral Ossification
    28. 16.27. Fracture Repair
    29. 16.28. Skeletal Stem Cells
    30. 16.29. Expansion and Differentiation
    31. 16.30. Growth Factors for Bone Repair
    32. 16.31. Scaffold Biocompatibility
    33. 16.32. The Function of the Vasculature in Skeletal Regeneration
    34. 16.33. Animal Models in Bone Tissue Engineering
    35. 16.34. Current Status of Bone Tissue Engineering
    36. 16.35. Future Perspectives for Bone Regeneration
    37. 16.36. Summary
  23. Chapter 17. Tissue Engineering of the Nervous System
    1. learning Objectives
    2. 17.1. Introduction
    3. 17.2. Peripheral Nerve
    4. 17.3. CNS: Spinal Cord
    5. 17.4. CNS: Optic Nerve
    6. 17.5. CNS: Retina
    7. 17.6. CNS: Brain
    8. 17.7. Neuroprostheses
    9. 17.8. Future Approaches
    10. 17.9. Summary
  24. Chapter 18. Principles of Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 18.1. Introduction
    3. 18.2. Heart Structure, Disease, and Regeneration
    4. 18.3. Cell Sources for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering and Regeneration
    5. 18.4. Biomaterials—Polymers, Scaffolds, and Basic Design Criteria
    6. 18.5. Biomaterials as Vehicles for Stem Cells or Bioactive Molecule Delivery
    7. 18.6. Bioengineering of Cardiac Patches, In vitro
    8. 18.7. Vascularization of Cardiac Patches
    9. 18.8. Bioengineering of Blood Vessels
    10. 18.9. In situ Tissue Reconstruction by Injectable Acellular Biomaterials
    11. 18.10. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
    12. 18.11. Summary
  25. Chapter 19. Tissue Engineering of Organ Systems
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 19.1. Introduction
    3. 19.2. Urogenital Tissue Engineering
    4. 19.3. Liver Tissue Engineering
    5. 19.4. Gastrointestinal Tissue Engineering
    6. 19.5. Pancreas Tissue Engineering
    7. 19.6. Lung Tissue Engineering
    8. 19.7. Future Developments
    9. 19.8. Summary
  26. Chapter 20. Organs-on-a-Chip
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 20.1. Introduction
    3. 20.2. Concept of Organ-on-a-Chip
    4. 20.3. Examples of Organ-on-a-Chip
    5. 20.4. Conclusion
    6. 20.5. Summary
  27. Chapter 21. Product and Process Design: Toward Industrial TE Manufacturing
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 21.1. Introduction
    3. 21.2. Bioreactor Systems for TE Product Manufacturing
    4. 21.3. Quality Control for TE Products—A Multiscale Approach
    5. 21.4. Online Data-Based Monitoring–Cross-Talk between Process Parameters and TE Construct Quality Attributes
    6. 21.5. Enhancing In Vivo Performance: An In Silico Mediated Approach for TE Product Design
    7. 21.6. Downstream Processing in TE Manufacturing
    8. 21.7. Toward Efficient TE Product Translation
    9. 21.8. Snapshot Summary
  28. Chapter 22. Clinical Translation
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 22.1. Introduction
    3. 22.2. Clinical Translation of Tissue-Engineered Products
    4. 22.3. Typical Challenges for Tissue Engineering Encountered in the Clinical Phase
    5. 22.4. Implementation of a Clinical Trial
    6. 22.5. Special Points to Consider
    7. 22.6. Conclusion and Future Perspectives
    8. 22.7. Snapshot Summary
  29. Chapter 23. Ethical Issues in Tissue Engineering
    1. Learning Objectives
    2. 23.1. Introduction
    3. 23.2. Morality, Ethics, and Values
    4. 23.3. Moral Problems Relating to the Source of Material for Tissue Engineering
    5. 23.4. New Technologies: New Possibilities and New Dangers
    6. 23.5. Some Questions for the Future
    7. 23.6. Notes
  30. Index