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Other types of failure

In the preceding pages I have described the pattern of deep failure, the classic form of failure which almost everyone can recognise. I did this by drawing on my own experience, generalised and validated by others’ experiences and examples from elsewhere. As I have thought and learnt more, I have refined and extended my analysis of failure. I still believe that the account of deep failure I have given is central, but I have now identified two other ‘failure’ pathways leading in quite different directions, which it is vital to understand. One is more severe than deep failure. It is irrecoverable and I call it total failure. The other is less severe and avoids the major, adverse effects of failure. I call it shallow ...

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