Asymmetry of Information, Interests, and Influence

The TMT and middle managers depend on each other for strategy formulation and implementation. But the parties are not equally powerful; there are asymmetries of information and influence. The TMT has the formal power base of its organizational function and an overview of a wide array of information from many intra- and extraorganizational sources.13 The TMT has an additional power base because it can decide which middle managers it hires and promotes as well as with which middle managers it wants to interact for particular issues.14

Middle managers, on the other hand, usually have good access to intraorganizational information from lower echelons and are the first in line to work with the TMT’s ...

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