Interaction Moments: Windows of Opportunity

Cognitive flexibility and integrative bargaining are important for formulating high-quality strategic decisions and successfully implementing them. But how do you achieve that when you work, as most TMTs and middle managers do, under severe time pressure with only limited opportunities to interact with each other?

Most of the existing research has implicitly assumed that there is ample opportunity for the TMT and middle managers to interact. But the starting point of our model is the opposite: We propose that opportunities for contact between the TMT and middle managers are relatively short and infrequent because of the heavy time restrictions imposed on their contact. This implies that both parties ...

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