Outside the Boardroom: Concluding Remarks

With the interface model, we wanted to show how the TMT and middle managers can create alignment in the absence of many interaction moments. Since the relationship between these two parties is characterized by asymmetries of information, interests, and influence, it is not self-evident that such alignment exists. And if the alignment is not there, it is not easy to build or repair.

The notions of cognitive flexibility and integrative bargaining, as characteristics of successful interaction, provide two concrete starting points from which to work on alignment. In addition, TMT participative leadership and middle manager active engagement are behavioral styles that each party separately can start using ...

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