Why Study Middle Managers’ Expectations and Evaluations of TMT Performance?

The idea for this study was based on our observation that relatively little is known about middle managers’ perceptions of their TMT. This is true despite the fact that research on leadership effectiveness in general has pointed at the interest in followers’ perspectives of their leaders.2 Researchers using stakeholder theory have also emphasized the relevance of assessing stakeholders’ perspectives of top managers.

Stakeholders have the power to give or withhold resources, such as information, materials, and their own efforts. They are therefore critical for the TMT to achieve its objectives.3 Although TMTs of course have a variety of stakeholders both inside and outside ...

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