Research Focus

We were interested in two types of cognitions from middle managers: their expectations and their evaluations. Expectations are cognitive structures that an individual can hold about future activities and are, in an organizational setting, often associated with the occupancy of a certain organizational role.22 Evaluations are also cognitive structures, but they have a focus on past activities instead of future ones and capture middle managers’ subjective assessments of actual behavior of the TMT. The actions of top managers, because these managers are authority figures who are highly visible in their roles at the top of their organizations, are particularly prone to be the focal concept of evaluative processes of subordinates.

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