Middle Manager Perspectives: Concluding Remarks

The results of this study provide TMTs with knowledge about middle managers’ expectations concerning top managerial performance. Researchers have argued before that leaders should enhance their knowledge about the performance expectations of their subordinates.34 This is important for TMTs as well, as they face demands from different stakeholder groups and these stakeholders make decisions to give or withhold resources that are required for organizational performance.35 Yet research has shown that many senior executives fail to recognize the importance of others’ perceptions for their own reputations.36

Moreover, the outward appearance of TMTs and stakeholder uneasiness with TMT deterioration have ...

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